Saturday, August 31, 2019
From researching online databases of my city, IÃ¢â¬â¢ve found that we are focused on planning ahead for disasters such as hurricanes, or even different forms like terrorism for example. The city acknowledges this strategic planning needed, as well as building public awareness and the development of hazardous mitigation and emergency response plans. According to the mayor, these plans are at completion and ready for use when or if the time ever comes. It was also found that all of this preparedness has been keeping the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s homeland security team completely busy for the past few years as the city stresses necessary training, new equipment and education and the growing development of the new Community Emergency Response Team. If you are to draw any evidence from these actions of my city, it is that the key stress is maximum preparedness and planning which isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a bad emphasis when youÃ¢â¬â¢re dealing with natural disasters. Agencies One agency in the city of West Haven in regards to emergency preparedness is the Medical Reserve Corps or MRC. They are actually sponsored by the office of the U.S. Surgeon General. As a community based volunteering network, they are organized to support the existing public health structure during emergencies and even non-emergency events. The responsibilities include managing natural disasters, illnesses, man-made emergencies and community health events. Member positions range from medical practitioners, nurses, mental health professionals as well as miscellaneous volunteering roles. Another agency with emergency preparedness in my city is the Community Emergency Response Team or CERT. On September 23, 2006 CERT was launched in West Haven with thirty two volunteers. The theory behind the development of CERT is actually quite obvious but some places might never put this into perspective sadly. In major emergencies itÃ¢â¬â¢s a fact that emergency services are overloaded instantaneously. With CERT created it gives ordinary civilians the training opportunity they need to be prepared in emergency circumstances. This opens up the opportunity for a more independent societyÃ with less of a need to seek professional emergency officials help in a time of crisis. Every area in our world faces the threat of earthquakes and tornadoes and the most common disasters we face are severe storms and floods. Essentially CERT is needed everywhere whether people believe it or not, itÃ¢â¬â¢s just whether or not the location acknowledges this. Geography West Haven has a total of 11 square miles of which 0.2 square miles is water and the remainder of space is land. Containing 3.5 miles of publicly accessible beaches, West Haven is bound in the southwest by The Oyster River, northwest by the town of Orange, north by New Haven, northeast by The West River, to the east is New Haven Harbor and to the south there is Long Island Sound which is separated by a break wall. With so much water lining the city it is quite vulnerable to water hazards like flooding and property damage during the several storms or hurricanes we get over the years. I myself have seen lots of homes on the water cease to exist because of these hurricanes in the past few years. In addition to that, there has also been much sand erosion on our beaches within the past few years. Literally half of the distance from our road to the water that was covered with sand now lies there.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Evolution of the genus Homo. Charles Darwin was the first to formulate a scientific argument for the theory of evolution by Natural Selection. The idea of natural selection is basically Ã¢â¬Å"the survival of the fittest. Ã¢â¬ Evolution is any change in characteristics in biological populations. It gives diversity to life on all known biological organizations such as molecules, organs, organisms, etc. Life is said to be originated from a universal common ancestor, which tells us that all life is related to each other.Life started from simple celled organisms known as prokaryotes, which evolved into eukaryotes after photosynthesizing bacteria evolved forcing oxygen concentration to rise in the atmospheric. This event known as the Great Oxidation Event acted as poison on many bacteria that use carbon dioxide as an energy source. After the evolution of eukaryotes, sexual reproduction appeared and increased the evolution rate tremendously. Complex multi-cellular organisms started to a ppear soon after, first in oceans and then on land.Over time, life diversified into millions of organisms. The genus Homo first evolved around 2. 5 Ma from Australopithecine genus (now extinct). The first homo species believed to evolve were called Homo Habilis. They lived side by side with another homo species called Homo erectus until at least 1. 44 Ma. H. Habilis were also the first species to make tools out of stone. H. Erectus resembled modern humans and colonized in Africa. They had a brain size 74% that of modern humans and had ways of making better tools and also hunted bigger animals.Another species, Homo Antecessors were common ancestors of humans and H. Neanderthals. Modern humans shared 99% of their DNA with Neanderthals and Neanderthals also had a similar gene linked to speech. Another species, Homo Heidelbergensis may be an ancestor of Neanderthals and modern humans. Finally, modern humans or Homo Sapiens are said to first appeared around 200 Ka around Oma river, Ethio pia. There are two famous models that explain where the modern day humans originated from. Both models are supported by evidence and therefore are accept by different scientists.The Replacement model says that modern humans originated in Africa and replaced all other archaic humans beginning 60,000 years ago. The regional continuity model argues that all modern human evolved more or less simultaneously in all major parts of old world from local archaic humans. It is believed that environmental variables, along with natural adaption, such as pathogens, diet, survival needs, climate, etc. caused the different phenotypic diversity among human populations thus complicating the puzzle of modern human evolution.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
International and Domestic Food Franchising in Saudi Arabia - Essay Example The country is experiencing a tremendous population growth, along with the fact that its oil reserves are finite. These two major dynamics has and is changing the foundations of the country. The realities of globalisation as well as the understanding that its oil reserves will one day be depleted has seen the country's leadership plan changes to the economic structure of the country to meet current and future needs to bring Saudi Arabia in line with the economic make up of a post oil situation, via the development of a diversified economic structure. The preceding background events, which shall be further elaborated upon herein, represent important facets in this study, along with the underpinnings of the country's surge of industrial projects, and revision of its laws, policies and regulations. The foregoing has been spurred by the broad reasons mentioned, population growth and finite oil reserves, and the application by Saudi Arabia to join the World Trade Organisation, a process that began in 1992. Admission to this body occurred in 2005, with the foregoing admittance requiring massive as well as comprehensive internal reorganisation of the legal, social system, and industry that included the difficult changes in consideration of the country's religion, Islam. Ã
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Discuss whether or not the 19th century was a period of progress - Essay Example A perusal of the writings of various 19th century authors like Mary Shelley, Frederick Douglas, Sojourner Truth, Rudyard Kipling, John Stuart Mill and StÃ ©phane MallarmÃ © was made to ascertain the answer to the problem being posed. The result of the inquiry into the aforesaid writersÃ¢â¬â¢ works supports the hypothesis that the 19th century was a period of progress not only in the realm of sciences and research but also in the areas of human and social outlook. The 19th century was a period of growth in the field of sciences, research and industry. This is the implication of Mary ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Frankenstein (1818) which is a Gothic novel about a scientist who discovered how to give life to inanimate objects such as a corpse. It is evident from this work that at the time Shelley wrote this novel, the industrial revolution already exploded at least in Europe which became her basis for her descriptions of the mechanical contraptions used by her primary character to create his Ã¢â¬Ëmonster.Ã¢â¬â¢ The miserable musings of Frankenstein who is both guilt-ridden for having stepped into the shoes of God and loathing of the ugly creature, which is human but not human, he created represent ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s caveat against engaging too much in insatiable scientific quests and exploration to the extent of overstepping on GodÃ¢â¬â¢s jurisdiction. This is evident in the following lines by Frankenstein: Ã¢â¬Å"Learn from me, if not by my precepts, how dangerous is the acquirement of knowledge and how much happier that man is who believes his native town to be the world, then he who aspires to be greater than his nature will allowÃ¢â¬ (33). This passage implies that at the time Shelley wrote this novel in 1818, there was a stream of scientific movements going on quite different and more advanced and bolder in scope than what the world was used to that it alarmed the mind of the then young Shelley who must have thought these developments were bordering on blasphemy. To this extent, Shelley
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Roe versus Vade Case Study - Essay Example Critics of the judgment have commonly made their arguments based on individual ethical beliefs which are immaterial when examining the language of the Constitution. The point of view that is opposed to the Roe decision can be promptly invalidated by the legal definition when evaluating the specific wordage contained within the Constitution in addition to understanding past precedent of constitutional decisions reached by the Supreme Court. However, there are legitimate questions regarding the Constitutional matters of the Roe decision that warrant answering. The word Ã¢â¬Å"abortionÃ¢â¬ is not contained within the Constitution but merely because the word itself is not present, the Constitution remains the source of legal precedence for this matter. The justicesÃ¢â¬â¢ interpretation of the Constitution is the central focus of this subject. Since the Supreme Court is more conservative today in terms of general ideology than in 1973, many think that soon its interpretation of the i ssue will nearer resemble former Justice William RehnquistÃ¢â¬â¢s dissenting opinion concerning Roe v. Wade. Ã¢â¬Å"The Court must be wrong to find any basis for this right in the 14th Amendment to the Constitution. To reach its result, the Court necessarily has had to find within the scope of the Fourteenth Amendment a right that was apparently completely unknown to the drafters of the AmendmentÃ¢â¬ (Pavone 2005). Understanding that courts do undeniably have the power to intercede in decisions involving personal rights citing Constitutional precedence, could laws precluding abortions still be justified despite of what many consider an egregious encroachment on the civil rights of women? After all, constitutional rights are not absolute. Why shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t the federal government be concerned with protecting the rights of persons yet to be born? The Fourteenth Amendment definitively answers this question. The Amendment begins by referring to Ã¢â¬Å"All persons born ... in the United StatesÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Fourteenth AmendmentÃ¢â¬ , 2011), signifying that the protections guaranteed by the Constitution refer to those persons who have already been Ã¢â¬Ëborn.Ã¢â¬â¢ When many people criticize the Roe judgment, they base their opposition entirely on moral grounds but lawyers, scholars, and particularly judges who denounce the high courtÃ¢â¬â¢s decision should do so based only on constitutional grounds. If they wish to voice their moral concerns they should draw a clear distinction between the legal and moral objections. The legal argument in opposition to the decision should address both the Fourteenth and the Ninth Amendment which states, Ã¢â¬Å"The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the peopleÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Bill of RightsÃ¢â¬ , 2011). Persons opposing legalized abortions have stated that the ninth, and all other amendments, does not expressly refer to an abortion proced ure consequently the Constitution does not apply when attempting to establish the legitimacy of abortion rights. This point of view, however, very apparently contradicts the statement of the Ninth Amendment which undoubtedly promotes the recognition of abortion rights and all other personal rights in addition to what is specifically contained in the Constitutio
Monday, August 26, 2019
Ethical Organizational Climate - Essay Example In 2009, less than a month after being sworn in, he signed three presidential memoranda and two executive orders concerned with ethics and transparency (Hughes and Ginnett, 2012). A leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s public and private morality can be distinguished because people exhibit different behaviors privately and publicly.A leader cannot act privately the same way he acts in the public because the expectations in both cases are different and trying to streamline them can create strains privately or publicly. The best approach is to find a balance between the two (Bowie, 2013). A bad person cannot be a good leader because effective leadership requires respect for the people one leads. How can one be a good leader if he does not respect the very people he is supposed to lead, and who probably placed him in that position of leadership? It is impossible. If leaders do not demonstrate ethical conduct then their followers will do the same (Bowie, 2013). Next, their followersÃ¢â¬â¢ followers will fo llow the cue and within no time a whole society will be corrupt and unethical. Leader behavior is more important in improving ethical values in an organization than a code of ethics or employee training. This is because good leadership embodies the other two aspects. A good leader creates a conducive environment to facilitate the employee training and the creation of codes of ethics. Codes of ethics and employee training cannot create better leaders than natural leadership (Bowie, 2013).
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Display design for or a museun, gallery, shop ,church, palace or temporary exhibition - Essay Example Furthermore, of the ethnic groups named in the Hall of Kenya and the Cycle of life gallery, the emphasis is on the Maasai ethnic group. This appears to be a deliberate attempt to please foreign tourist market given that it resonates well with KenyaÃ¢â¬â¢s tourism sectorÃ¢â¬â¢s extensive use of Maasai imagery and artifacts in advertisements. The foreign tourist market is important for the museum given that tourist pay eight times more than what ordinary citizens of Kenya pay at the entrance as fee in order to gain access to the museum. In addition, the tourist pays U.S. $100 to view the original hominid skeletal remains in the Cradle of Mankind galleryÃ¢â¬â¢s section (JURMAIN, 2008.p.6). The Cycle of Life exhibits consists of artifacts associated with stages of life in the history of traditional and modern Kenya. Like the photographs and paintings in the Hall of Kenya, the artifacts here, also carry ethnic identities as the overriding motive of display. Pictorial exhibit in the national museum as part of KenyaÃ¢â¬â¢s 10th independence anniversary celebration display is political because they are used in highlighting the various developments in the history of Kenya since independence. These developments were responsible for shaping the history of the nation through the various stages of struggle up to independence. The pictorial exhibits are used by government and the museum to give citizens the opportunity to learn, appreciate and experience the efforts and struggles made by the government and other institutions in the social, political and economical development of Kenya as a young country. An example of this exhibition was the 17th December 2013 which showcased the political struggles of various individuals and their contributions towards KenyaÃ¢â¬â¢s independence. In addition, the pictorial exhibits are being used to celebrate KenyaÃ¢â¬â¢ Jubilee year. It is a celebration which given due
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Clinical Psychology - Term Paper Example Earlier, psychology was believed to be the study of mind; however, it is difficult to measure the activities of mind either quantitatively or qualitatively. Science will never accept any principle if it cannot be proved experimentally. In other words, psychology was not a science subject earlier because of our inability in measuring or assessing activities in mind accurately. In order to raise the status of psychology to scientific levels, psychologists modified the definition of psychology as the study of behaviour rather than the study of mind. It is possible for us to measure the behaviour of a person both qualitatively and quantitatively and hence psychology is now considered as a branch of science. Clinical psychology is the most important branch of psychology because of the immense contributions it gives to the treatment of mental problems of human beings. Ã¢â¬Å"The phrase "clinical psychology" was coined by psychologist Lightner Witmer. A student of Wundt, Witmer began a jour nal of clinical psychology in 1907. He identified the field as one that studied individuals, but used observation and experimentation to promote changeÃ¢â¬ (Long, 2009). Clinical psychology is the study of psychological and behavioral problems of human beings. It give more emphasize to the diagnosis, symptoms and treatments of mental disorders.
Friday, August 23, 2019
Truth and Lies - Essay Example It is essential to have the common awareness that men and women lie due to various situations in their lives, and only such an understanding can help one deal with the issue. If I find a client lying in a session, my first response will be one of accepting the reality of truth/lies. Then, I will ensure that I make attempts in which the client himself/herself realizes the fact about the lie and about me understanding it. Once the client is sure about the lie he/she has told, I will ask about the situations for him/her to lie so. I will make him/her be convinced of the fact that everyone lies at some moment of life. My attempts will also help him/her understand the need for humans to be truthful in life. I will also clarify the different views about truth and lies by which the client is able to make his/her choice. At the end of all these, the client will become aware of the problem of lying and the beauty of being truthful in life. I will make use of this situation to amplify the clie nt's awareness with general facts regarding the nature of lies. Coping is one of the most significant factors affecting the results of the activities undertaken in order to reduce the impact of an issue. "Coping consists of efforts, both action oriented and intra psychic, to manage (i.e. master, tolerate, reduce, minimize) environmental and internal demands and conflicts.' (Lazarus & Launier, 1978, p. 311). As Steven Gullo has pointed out, there are various styles of coping with a situation and people's selection of a particular Coping Style depends on several factors. It is important to realize that not any particular style of the six basic coping styles identified by Steven Gullo gives the complete picture of a best style. One style may seem good for a particular individual or situation while the same may be completely useless for another. An individual may make use of more than one style depending on the demands of the situation and the problem. However, one particular style may become predominant in every person along with other alternative styles. Therefore, I strongly feel that among the six basic coping styles in young people, i.e. accepting, defying, facilitating, submitting, altruistic, and optimistic, the coping style I possess is that of accepting. That is to say, I always feel there is a strong need in everyone to be heard and listened to. The energy in every person is limited and these energies need to be utilized in the right direction in order to cope with a difficult situation. It is also essential to get the maximum amount of specifications from the clients and draw the right conclusions. If one fails in obtaining the exact information regarding the issue, one can never achieve a solution to the problem and, therefore, I always make it a point that the maximum amount of the factual information is obtained from the clients. To supplement to this style, I always feel that there is a solution to every difficult situation and I am very much confident about finding these solutions, provided I approach the situa tion realistically and objectively. Therefore, the coping style I prefer is one of accepting and many often this style is assisted by my optimistic views regarding the issues. 10 RULES FOR DADS The article "10 Rules for Dads to Give Children" by Dr. Walter C. Farrell can be best comprehended as one which points out the essential guidelines that a father in the modern world
Unpaid Internship - Essay Example In my opinion, the unpaid internship program is perfectly legal. Some institutions offer either a paid or unpaid internship program. For the unpaid internship program, a partnership is entered into between the schools and the training institutions. The institutions include the hospitals, factories, stores, and other unpaid internship entity types. Under both the unpaid and paid internship programs, the students are given an opportunity to experience real-life working conditions. In the internship program, fair exchange occurs. In exchange for the real-life working experiences, the unpaid intern earns educational units (Niles 108). The educational unit credits are in lieu of the internsÃ¢â¬â¢ being paid in U.S. dollar or other similar payment methods. For receiving free real work experiences, the greenhorn, neophyte academic learner cannot demand payment of their internship duties (Wong 57). Undoubtedly, the unpaid intern receives equivalent education units in exchange for the entit iesÃ¢â¬â¢ free training. Nancy Niles reiterated that Ã¢â¬Å"the unpaid internship program offers management another tool for fill the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s need additional company recruits (Niles 107). Some entities engage in trial employment (internship) activities. The company tests the internÃ¢â¬â¢s capacity to be hired as another future employee. For the slow-learning lackluster unpaid intern, management may immediately to terminate the internship. An intern who cannot follow the instructions or orders of the clinical instructors or training facilitiesÃ¢â¬â¢ superiors will surely be Ã¢â¬Å"kicked outÃ¢â¬ of the training sessions (Niles 108). Without a doubt, the unpaid internship program offers the facilitiesÃ¢â¬â¢ officers another tool in its desire to absorb highly qualified interns into the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s regular employee program. The unpaid internship program increases the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ job hiring prospects. To be effective, the students must focus quality time and energy to learning everything needed to be successful in the real world, including being hired in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s dream job.
Thursday, August 22, 2019
WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Resource Center Essay Communication plays an important role in many areas of all fields of employment. I have recently come back to school to earn my MBA. Prior to entering school again I worked in the social work field as a support person, working for an organization called WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Resource Center through the United Way. While working for WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Resource Center I attended various trainings. Some of the trainings were effective and offered a lot of information which could be used on a regular basis in my position, while others offered little useful information. Effective communication is one of the most important roles for a presenter to have when offering trainings, trainings that I have attended have had both good and poor communication and therefore the outcome of the trainings is greatly affected by the presenterÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to communicate. One of the most effective trainings that I attended while working for the WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Resource Center was a training called Ã¢â¬Å"Suicide Prevention and Assessment. Ã¢â¬ The training was very successful in my opinion as it offered information and the practical used of this information in the field. This training used a variety of resources and ways to communicate the needs of the clients and the ways that suicide could be affectively prevented. The training also offered various communication strategies and principals. The trainers were able to present clinical documentation in a way that all could understand and they also were able to relate the clinical studies to real life situations that we as employees could be facing on a regular basis. This training included a wide range of communication strategies when effectively communicating the needs of the information. I learned through an oral presentation, video, power point presentation, and handouts. I was able to follow along both visually and audibly which helped as I could see and hear what was being said. Also the trainers talked on a real world level relating issues and terminology to situations that present themselves to the staff on a regular basis. Through this training I learned some great resources for affective communication. I also learned the importance of effective communication in trainings first hand as the information seemed so much more personal and needed then it would have had the communication occurred in another way. If I were to lead this training I would not change a thing. It was by far the most effective work training that I have ever attended and I was able to learn more during this training and I feel that the main reason for my ability to learn was that the presenters utilized such effective communication practices. I was fortunate to be a part of such a great suicide prevention training however I have also had training experiences where the communication was poor and I was unable to gain information that was valuable from them. One training that I attended where the communication skills were lacking was training on the skill of Motivational Interviewing. This training was presented in a clinical manner. It was presented in a lecture style, without any visualizations and without apparent relevance to the population with which I was working. This training offered some great information but the information was lost to the students as it came across in a manner that was not interesting or practical for the environment for which it was to be applied. I felt that this training used such poor overall communication skills that it was ineffective based on communication alone. There were many things that could have been done differently to make this training more effective and for this training to have better overall communication skills. The training would have first been improved by offering various styles of communication, some lecture, some visual, some hand outs and things that could be used later. The training also would have been more effective if it were applied to the situations that are faced on a daily basis by the staff. I felt that I would have learned a lot more if I had been told ways that this training would help and if I had been given real world examples to the ability of these trainings. This training taught me firsthand that useful information can be lost if not communicated in an affective manner and the importance of being effective in my communication when leading or planning trainings on any topic. I would change the format first, then the communication style and possibly the trainerÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to communicate the information affectively to those who are working in the field. I would have worked to develop training that was effective for those who were supposed to use it. Effective communication is important in all areas of business. One area where business can be drastically affected by communication is training. There are always going to be trainings that are needed in any field of employment however the effectiveness of this training can be improved and the staff can learn more if effective communication takes place. I learned through training in my past position that communication plays a much more important role in the possibility of teaching new information than I would have formerly thought. I would not have imagined that the communication of the presenter could determine how much of the information was absorbed and how much of the training information was determined to be useful if I had not previously taken these two trainings and experienced first hand the difference in communication and how it affects those whom you are training.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Multiple Intelligences Theory and Sternbergs Triarchic Theory I will write the corrections between two theories Gardner`s Multiple Intelligences Theory and Sternbergs Triarchic Theory .I will discuss what are the aspects of similarities and differences between the theories. This assignment attempts to show how Gardner and Sternberg drew similar conclusion regarding human capacity and potential, examine Gardners eight intelligences and Sternbergs three kinds of intelligences (Vardin, 2003). I choose these theories because they are alike to some extent as well as that they are very famous and comprehensive these days. Some countries have made in the application of the schools and succeeded in doing so as USA (infed.org/thinkers/et-schon-htm-49k.). I choose Gardner`s theory in a particular because it supports that each person has a unique profile of intelligences but to varying degrees from others. Gardner said that intelligences are not only hereditary, but they also become acquired, so that we can strengthen the strong points and do not lose hop e of the weakness points but work to raise them (Gardner ,1997 ). What Gardner says raises our morale. Therefore I choose Gardner`s theory to compare with Sternberg theory in addition to similarities between of them. I will evaluate each theory in my teaching practice in primary school which of these theories I will agree or more strong than another. I will arrange my assignment first I will mention every aspect of both theories and discuss each one separately and provide differences and similarities in this capacity of this attribute and then I will apply each aspect in my context which is primary schools in Libya. The key aspects which I will compare are: both theories are critical of the unitary of intelligence, what these intelligences are in their opinions, both of them are holistic view and more inclusive notion, both of them generate ideas and provide feedback as the curriculum is developed, what both of them said for teaching approaches and assessment approaches, both theori sts view that culture contexts are important in relation to intelligences. Both of these theories are about intelligences and against the traditional concept of intelligence. Gardner multiple intelligences theory and Sternberg triarchic theory are about intelligences and both of them opposed intelligence is a general which asserts that intelligence is ability logical and linguistic. They are proposing that intelligences are thought of as a wide range of abilities. Sternberg`s and Gardner`s (1982) summarized the general intelligence theory by stating general intelligence can be understood componentially as deriving in part from the execution of general components information processing behaviour (http://www.personality research.org/papers/paik.html) .The traditional view of intelligence is defined success in problem solving ability to learn, capacity for producing nodegenetic solutions, understanding of complex instructions or simply all round cognitive ability. (Eysenck, 1982, p.8). However, Sternberg and Gardner defined intelligences in another way. According to Sternberg intelligence is mental activity directed toward purposive adaptation to, selection and shaping of, real-world environments relevant to one`s life (Sternberg 1985 p .45). Intelligences in this view mean that how an individual treats the environment change through his/her life and adapts with it. (Ibid, 1985). However, the definition of intelligences according to Gardner are ability to solve problem or fashion products that are of consequence in a particular culture setting or community (Gardner 1993: p, 15) and he also defined it in 1999 as a bio psychological potential to process information that can be activated in a cultural setting to solve problems or create products that are of value in a culture (Gardner 1999 p.34). Each of those theories has merits and evidences to support its claims (http://www.personality research.org/papers/paik.html).The traditional view of intelligence was measured by Stanford Binet intelligence scale for children IQ, Wechsler intelligence scale for children WISCIV, Woodcock Johnson test of cognitive ability and Scholastic Aptitude Tes t. However, in contrast, multiple intelligences theories opposed that. They say that short answer test cannot measure deep understanding but it indicates memorization skills. Furthermore, the traditional view of intelligence mentioned that people are born with intelligence and this intelligence cannot change over the life whereas the writer of multiple intelligences believes that intelligences are both genetic and acquired, and human being can improve intelligences through life. In teaching practice teachers in the traditional view taught students in the same way whereas in multiple intelligences theories teachers use a variety of ways to teach and assess students. Sternberg and Gardner agree that people have different types of intelligences (http://web.Cortland. Edu/and ersmd/ learning/traditional%20intelligence.htm). In my experience, I agree with Sternberg and Gardner that intelligence is multiple while I oppose the intelligence with the traditional view that intelligence is unitary. For example, in my educational context in primary school, it is not fair to describe a student as is not intelligent because he or she has not done well in the traditional test(paper and pencil) which is focused only on logical and linguistic intelligences and do not take account of other types of intelligences . This student maybe successful in other life skills, but he could not to be completed in the traditional exam. In addition, from my learning experience and what I hear from my fellow teachers, some students are giving new creative solutions to mathematical problems have not been studied before while they do not achieve in examinations measured by conventional paper and pen. Sometimes, I and my colleagues notice that some students are not smart in a particular area for example writing and reading while they a re smart in other areas therefore I support Gardner and Sternberg that human being has multi intelligences not just one. How Sternberg and Gardner consider the intelligences. Both of them agree that a human has different intelligences, which are independent of each other. In their views that individual differences intelligences, begin from the earliest years of life and when someone has strength in one area of ability, this is not ensuring strengths or weaknesses in other areas (Vardin, 2003).They state, in fact, that everyone has a unique profile (ibid, 2003). Both of them see individual development as a result between genetic and environmental factors (ibid 2003). However, the theorists did not agree on the number of intelligences. Gardner (1983) believes that there are seven types of intelligences linguistic, logical, bodily-kinaesthetic, musical, spatial, interpersonal, and intrapersonal (Campbell, Dickinson, Campbell, 2004). Whereas Sternberg believes that there are three kinds of intelligences creative, analytical and practical (Sternberg, 1985). According to Gardner he asserts eight evidences for MI theory as follows, isolated two abilities from ea ch other by brain damage, exceptional individual such as prodigies and idiots savants, some core information processing operations, experiment psychology and cognitive psychology, symbol system, evolutionary biology (Gardner, Kornhaber, Wake, 1996) and psychometric findings (Gardner 1983:62). He describes two kinds of traditional intelligence which can easily practice in schools and next three kinds he classified them in art and the last two kinds they are more personal (Gardner 1999). The eight Kinds of intelligences according to Gardner as follow. Linguistic verbal intelligence. It contains sensitivity to the sound, rhythm, spoken and written language, and the capacity to learn usage language to express the meaning and to explain concepts and remember information as formal system such as writers, lawyers, speakers. Some forms in this intelligence include telling jokes, discussion and writing poems (Campbell, Campbell, and Dickinson: 2004). Logical -mathematical intelligence. We use our logical /mathematical intelligence to analyze problem logically, determining relation such as cause and effect and achieve mathematical operation. Some forms in this intelligence involve creating thinking, analyzing problems and discovering and using logical sequences (Kagan, Kagan, 1998). Bodily -kinaesthetic intelligence. Ability to use whole body or parts of the body such as movement gestures , facial, and hand gestures and enjoy in physical activities .( Kagan Kagan ,1998).This intelligence may see different from traditional views of intelligence.Bodily kinaesthetic intelligence involves the use of all or part of one`s body to solve problems of fashion products. And core operations associated with this intelligence are control over fine and gross motor action and the ability to manipulate external objects. (Gardner, Kornhaber, Wake 1996 p.209). Such as found in athletes, dancers and surgeons. Musical intelligence. In this intelligence Sternberg and Gardner agree on it and Sternberg call it creative intelligence .According to Gardner musical intelligence gives chance to people to creative, communicate, and understand meaning made out of sound .It is different from linguistic intelligence (Gardner kornhaber, wake 1996). People can gain a high degree in musical skills. Gardner himself has high degree in this intelligence and states I believe that I think musically I need music to work. I also hear music all the time in my head I think that my major activities to think and to read and to write occur in a very musical way. My literary work reflects the sorts of organization that I observed in composition I studied and played i.e. the development of themes ,the effects that something introduced at one point has much later back and forth(Gardner 1997,p 10). Spatial intelligence. We express this intelligence through pictures, sculpture, and arranging objects. Those strong in this intelligence enjoy designing, doodling, and drawing. Some forms this intelligence takes include map interpreting and making decorating, page, layout , design and make collages .(Kaga ,kagan 1998). It concerns the ability to perceived spatial information to transform this information, and to create visual images even without original references. Blind people also can use it because it is not dependent on visual sensation for example to build mental image of their homes or figurers out routes to work. Core abilities in this intelligence are ability to build images in three dimensions (Gardner, Kornhaber, Wake 1996). The last two intelligences are the personal intelligence. Interpersonal intelligence. It is ability to interact successfully with others. Some forms of this intelligence are leadership skills, friendship skills and ability to understand strength and weaknesses points for others (Kagan, Kagan, 1998).Interpersonal intelligence makes use of core capacities to recognize and make distinctions among others feelings, belief and intention In early development of this intelligence will be ability young people to distinguish from other individuals in their environments and enable them to carry out their work (Gardner, Kornhaber, Wake 1996 p.211). Intrapersonal Intelligence. It concerns ability to understand our own feeling images, dreams, moods and states. Gardner defined the intrapersonal intelligence over the years. After frames of mind(1983), Gardner focused on the feeling life in his original conception of intrapersonal intelligence, but that he had come to stress instead, the importance of having a viable model of oneself and of being able to draw effectively upon that model in making decisions about ones life (Gardner, 1993, p.xviii). This statement reflects cognitive learning. Defining intelligence in this view ways of thinking associated with different types of information. Gardner argues that intrapersonal intelligence is human only. (Kagan, Kagan 1998). According to him, each of these seven can be observed and measured. Moreover, everyone has seven kinds of intelligences in different levels; someone might be strong in musical intelligence and poor in logical intelligence so individuals are distinguished by their particular profile of intelligences (1999, 1983). More recently, Gardner opens the door to additional candidate intelligences (naturalist, spiritual, existential and moral intelligences). Naturalist intelligence. It is ability to classify and recognize natural patterns through encounters with natural world that involve appreciation for and understand flora and fauna (Lazear.2004). It enables people to recognize certain feature of the environment. It combines a description of the core ability with a characterization of the role that many cultures value (Gardner 1999, p.48). Inclusion of naturalist intelligence appears straight forward. He has added a naturalist intelligence in his list. Spiritual intelligence. Is more complex and seem more responsible (ibid 1999). Existential intelligence. Although existential intelligence might be attractive and concern with ultimate issue, Gardner is not arranging to add it in his list .Gardner state I find the phenomenon perplexing enough and the distance from the other intelligences are vast enough to dictate prudence at least for now(ibid :66). Moral intelligence:it is a concern with those rules, behaviours and attitudes that govern the sanctity of life in particular, the sanctity of human life and in many cases, the sanctity of any other living creatures and the world they inhabit (ibid p.70). In the other hand, Sternberg`s theory comprises three parts: componential, experiential, and practical. Sternberg labelled three components the met components, performance components, and knowledge -acquisition component (Sternberg 1985). Sternberg explains that different contexts and different tasks require different kinds of intelligences. He divided his theory the three parts as follow (Sternberg, 1985). Componential/Analytical sub theory. This is the sort of thinking which involve critical and problem solving, and is usually measured by traditional tests. Unfortunately, individuals with only this type of thinking are not necessarily able to creating unique ideas of their own because analytical giftedness often is tested without other. It is involved when human being responses such as compare and contrast evaluate, Critique, explain (Sternberg 1997). Experiential/creative sub theory. This is a second kind of thinking to generate new ideas and he divided it two parts novelty and automation. A novel situation. It is ability to solve problems in different and unfamiliar ways never experienced before (Sternberg 1997). Automated .It is familiar. It has been performed multiple times with the same or other processes. Practical thinking. Deals with the mental activity involved in attaining fit to contrast . (Sternberg, 1985 p.45), and it occurs when learners apply what they know to everyday life (Howie, 2009b). This thinking is dependent on three processes. Adaptation. It occurs when someone adapt to changes around him/her (Sternberg 1985). Shaping .It occurs when someone makes changes to adapt to the real world (Sternberg 1985). Selection. It concerns when a completely new alternative environment replaced the previous one, to meet the individual`s goals (Sternberg, 1985). Most people who are successfully intelligent are not equal in these three abilities, but they find ways of making the three abilities work harmoniously together (Sternberg, 2008). Sternberg agrees with Gardner in creative or musical intelligence but in other six abilities he classified practical and analytical intelligences. In my teaching practice, I agree with Gardner and Sternberg that each student has different intelligences from others. For example, in my class I have smart student in conservation while another student is smart in writing. The intelligent student in the conservation is not needed for intelligence or stupidity in other skills because each of these intelligences is independent of other intelligences. I also agree with them that intelligences are influenced by environmental aspects for example, if person has been done a particular work in a certain country, he/she may consider smart while if he/she does the same work in other country may classify him/her as not intelligent and vice versa. From my teaching experience I have two twin girls in my class; they have lived in different environments and circumstances. I have found these girls have different intelligences from each other. This may be some evidence that environment has a big role to refigure our intelligences into development or foil. On the other hand, I agree with Gardner that intelligences divide into eight intelligences, and it is possible to add others whereas I dispute with Sternberg those intelligences are just three. In my experience, I have noticed that intelligences of the students are not only creative or practical or analytical. For example, some students do not own those three intelligences so they cannot learn practical, analytical and creative ways. Does this mean they are not smart? However, these students may have other types of intelligences as Gardner said because when I explain the lesson in other ways by signals or move my body, they understand better. This means that they have Bodily -kinaesthetic intelligence, or when I read the lesson in a melodic way, student who has musical intelligence understand better than any other ways. Therefore, I have tendency with Gardner Multiple intelligences that students have eight kinds of intelligences as I mentioned them above. Inclusion view or holistic view. Both of psychologists put tendency forwards theories with multiple abilities or intelligences, which are a much more holistic view of abilities, learning to a much more inclusive notion of how individual can be able. When Gardner`s original listing of the intelligences in frame of mind (1983).There are discussions to other possible for inclusion. After many researches Gardner reached to three possibilities: A naturalist intelligence, a spiritual intelligence and existential intelligence (Gardner 1999:52). The final one for inclusion is moral intelligence; if people accept moral intelligence then it is possible to add it. It is inclusive to add intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligences. Although he emphasises intrapersonal intelligence as near to met cognition, the non hierarchical nature of this list, he wishes to see executive function as an entity which emerge from other intelligences (ibid, 1999). Gardner points out that two people have not exactly the same profile of strengths and weakness and we can enhance any intelligence by concerted effort (Montessori, 2003). On the other hand, According to Sternberg when he did some studies in the diversity of students in different cultures, findings in these studies that students who achieve high analytical groups were mostly white and middle class, the high in creative and practical groups were not. He said when you expand the range of abilities considered, the range of student identified as gifted increase as well.(Sternberg, 2008 p.60). I agree with both theories that ability of human being is a more holistic view. Through my experience I have found that students capabilities are multiple, and they have abilities to do a lot of things. I have found some students who have natural abilities where they could learn by exploration a nature as an animals or plants around them. There are some students who have moral intelligence. This is very important to have in my religion and culture. We cannot avoid it, and I hope that Gardner add it to his list officially. There are a lot of intelligences which indicate the universality of human ability such as culinary, industrial intelligences and others. In addition the way in which intelligences present in different cultures is not limited to a certain category for example students from Europe or the Middle East or from Africa, all exhibit different kinds of intelligences. In my experience, it is possible to find creative ability in Europeans students and analytical ability in Afr ican students and vice versa. Both of them said about developing curriculum and teaching. Both of theories Gardner (1983) theory of multiple intelligences and Sternberg (1985, 1988) triarchic theory of human intelligences generate ideas and to provide feedback as the curriculums are developed. Schools have moved to organize their curriculum according to MI theory. They start to use videotapes and net works to explore abilities in students and to teach them away adapt to their potentials. MI is encouraged by the educational community in three reasons first, MI emphasizes that children have many intelligences, not just one, and these abilities are defined shaped, and combined by the environment. Second, MI focused on children. Finally, MI emphasis intelligences are different from culture to another. Many of schools focused on MI to arrange their curriculum and MI help teacher how to create ways to teach lessons to students. (Torff: 1997, 1998). Gardner`s urges that teachers must pay attention to unique intelligences profiles and individual differences when they teach their students. He believes that there are one way to teach for individual differences in intelligences profiles, teacher can teach students through taking a topic or domain and explains it in different intelligences approaches, or by using entry points to helping them grasp new material according to their intelligences ( Howie, 2009a). In addition, he argues that practical intelligence curriculum which includes two parts: The Yale portion of the curriculum, designed to teach skills used across content areas. This is taught by content teachers for two or three period per week separately. (Sternberg, Okagaki, Jackson 1990, p. 36). The Harvard portion of the curriculum, which emphasizes individual subject -matter infusion of the skills within the content class.(ibid, 1990, p. 36). According to Sternberg, teachers need to teach their students with three abilities for increasing achievements. In his view, teaching involves helping students to capitalize their strength and to correct their weaknesses. This means that teachers must use a variety of ways to teaching students some of the time, they encourage students to analyze, critical, evaluate, compare and contrast and in other times to create, imagine, invent, and other times to apply, implement and practice. Sternberg and his colleagues have carried out a study in the United States. In this study, they used the Sternberg triarchic abilities test. The children were divided into four groups : High analytical ,high creative, high practical, high in all abilities or low in all abilities, all students listened to the same introductory psychology lecture in the morning but different among them were the type of lesson in afternoon section with one approach critical, analysis, compare and contrast, second approach , i magine, discover, invent and explore, the third approach practical, apply and implement, and the fourth approach in the memory condition. They might ask to memorize the main aspects of a major theory. Their results suggest that students who were placed in afternoon sections that matched their abilities performed better than did student who attended afternoon sections mismatched (Sternberg .2008).In the other words when students learn in ways matched their abilities , they can perform better at least some of times. So a good teacher uses a variety of teaching methods which adapt with abilities of their students. Sternberg (1985) has found practical intelligence for schools PIFS curriculum is based on the four kinds of knowledge to adaptation to any environment: managing oneself, managing tasks, and working with (managing) others. Self management, the teacher and student discuss styles of thinking of student multiple intelligences (Sternberg 1988, 1990) and each student chooses own individual style which adapt with him/her. Managing tasks, which deals with topics such as put strategies to solve problems, to correct bad habits, understanding questions and taking tests. Cooperating with others (practical discussion in class, shift places with others, and solving communication problems. I agree with psychologists that the development of the curriculum must be commensurate with the needs and students capabilities. The teachers should use a variety of ways to teach students such as video, participation, collaborative groups, advanced technology and others to adapting with learners themselves. While I disagree with Sternberg that teachers use three ways to teach and assess students practical, analysis and creative because there are some students cannot understand in these three ways, does this mean they are not smart so I strongly agree with Gardner that teachers must teach students in eight ways or more. .This view is fitting with my plans in my future teaching practice and to give me a great help to understanding the capacities of the students and to help them to understand the lesson through unique profile of abilities. Each student has the right to discuss with the teacher the pedagogical approaches which best fit with him/her. This will be benefit the learning and teaching process in both the teacher and the student. In the future I will apply this theory in my teaching practice. For example, if I have class which it contains group of students, I will identify their abilities according to their responses or understandings in the class then I will teach them and assess them in ways that fit their abilities. For example, with linguistic intelligence group I may ask them to write story or to read text with correct pronunciation, mathematical intelligence group for example, I will give the numerical activities, computer programming, and solving mathematical problem, Intrapersonal intelligence group I will leave them to work by concentrating the subject themselves because they tend to work alone. I will explain the lesson by bodily movement to facilitate understanding the lesson for Bodily Kinaesthetic group. Students who have interpersonal intelligences I will learn them by putting them collaborative groups. Visual Spatial groups I will show the m visual images. Musical groups, I will read the lesson as song or may play musical instrument although this intelligence is difficult to apply in my religion because we do not have music in our schools. Nature intelligence group I will learn them outside the school in the nature environment although this intelligence also difficult as other one because we have limited time in class and we have a big number of students in the same class. Both of them consider intelligences in teaching and assessment approaches. Both of these theorists agree that teaching and assessment approaches consider in their theories but in different ways. Both of them agree that intelligence can be improved at any age the more we practice the more we become. According to Sternberg, he suggests that tests of intelligence are not complete in both sides either in applying or in design; they are not adequate in design, because they heavily depend on analytical ability and do not pay attention in practical and creative abilities. As well they are not adequate in implementation because they are predicted that ways are fixed rather than flexible (Sternberg, 2008). Sternberg and his colleagues designed studies which are the Rainbow project and SAT Reasoning test which measures practical, creative analytical skills. They tested 1,013 high schools and colleges; they gave them analytical questions as available in conventional test but also gave them crea tive and practical questions. The creative questions required from students to imagine for example, they may ask them to write new story or may show them pictures and ask them to create a story orally. The practical test required asking students to solve problems in real life as consequence their studies, there were critical findings. First, they discovered three factors on their tests one was creative thinking, a second factor was practical thinking, the third factor was multiple-choice problem solving (Sternberg, 2008). Second, they discovered that using broader tests for college admissions can enhance academic excellence. Third, they discover that they could substantially reduce ethnic-group differences on the tests. There are a lot of students from the majority group who learn in ways that are different from those who assessed from standardized tests. These children may have abilities to success in real life, but these abilities may not appear in conventional tests. There are al so other projects called Kaleidoscope project (ibid, 2008). He also adds that assessment approaches must match to each type of intelligences (Sternberg: 2000). However, in contrast, according to Gardner, he refers to the weak performance of standardised test two reasons first, test is too narrow, and it just measures linguistic and logical abilities and does not take account spatial, bodily, kinaesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal and musical abilities. Second, pencil and paper testing are far away from real life. The MI has driven a critique of standardized testing; it suggests alternative assessment that captures the wide range of intelligences. He opposed assessment by pencil and paper type. He points out that rather advocates building up profile by teacher observation and project. We can use contextualised assessment such as the Project Spectrum Approach which contain from variety of settings in pre schools and primary schools assessments including teacher observation and telling stories, activities and games to determine strength and weaknesses for children. As well there are other projects used as alternative teaching, learning and assessment for schools by Gardner and his colleagues such as Mather and ATLAS projects and Project Zero (Troff, 1997,1998). He suggests s that we can possess eight types of intelligence. Moreover, he believes there are probably others that we have not yet been able to test. Each of us is unique and unrepeatable. We are complex than any standard testing instrument can reveal. We must stop labelling children because labelling is an unfair practice (Lazear, 2004, 12, 16). In multiple intelligences :Howard Gardner (1993) says Now a huge body of experimental evidence exists to indicate that assessment materials designed for one target audience cannot be transported directly to another cultural setting ,there are no purely culture fair or culture build materials . Every instrument reflects its origins. There is also an accumulation of findings about the cognitive abilities of various kinds of experts. It has been shown that experts often fail on formal measures of their calculating or re asoning capacities but can be shown to exhibit precisely those some skills in the course of their ordinary work in such cases, it is instruments which purported to document the person level of competence (Gardner 1993 p.172). Gardner is concerned to help students creating unique intelligences profiles and he suggests that creating should be the main goal of intelligence testing. Furthermore, he believes that teach students in the same way and assess them only by using one kind of assessment written or standard tests are simply unfair. Students are different from each other and we must take these differences into account when we are looking to structure our schools and when we assess our students. For example, when student does not perform well on a writte
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Symbolism Interpretation of Marriage Rites: Kom Marriage ABSTRACT This paper will take a look at kom traditional marriage rites and the four stages the constitute the actual marriage in Kom. It will begin by citing where Kom is situated, the various 8 satellite villages that made up the Kom tribe, which are Achain, Akei, Baiso, Baicham, Bueni, Mbesinaku, Mbenkas and Mejang. How they perceived marriage, how marriage is practiced in this society. This ethnographic work will also look at the four stages of marriage in this community which comprises of courtship, Si Lun Ibi ( to ask for Kola- which means ask the girls hand for marriage), Ndo Wi ( the house of the wife) and finally the actual traditional marriage which is the Ncha Wi ( the chains of the wife). During the course of collecting data I will take in to consideration the symbolic interpretation of marriage rites during the four stages of marriage particularly the use of imagery. The paper will also focus on the importance of marriage and the factors that prohibits marriage in this society. La stly, the paper will look at the socio cultural evolution of marriage in kom, trying to compare the past and present marriage, the effect on the Kom tradition and its individuals. Also the ways of over coming transgressors involved in this marriage To effectively carry out and communicate this ethnographic work, different sources and techniques will be used to collect and analyze the data respectively. Different secondary source will be efficiently utilized. As regards primary sources, field trips, interviews, direct observations, questionnaires and other methods used to carry out ethnographic research will be exploited, the use of native narration. Finally, data will be analysed with the use of both qualitative and quantitative techniques. Tables, percentages, charts and graphs will be used after sorting, classify analyzing and interpreting the data. INTRODUCTION Marriage in Kom is believed to be the oldest social body that has ever existed invented by man. Marriage ceremony in Kom consuetude four stages and a series of rites, these rites are very symbolic in traditional marriage process.Marriage in kom begins with secret seeing between the boy and the girl until they have decided to make it official for their families. The union of man and woman in Kom compulsorily begins with introduction which is not a form of marriage but the path to marriage; this is the very first step which makes marriage as institution. A man or woman can obtain a prestigious traditional title when he/she is married. This goes alongside with three important aspects that accompanied marriage. Wain (a child), ifuonjini (food) iyamngvin (the jungle animal). These three Kom three fingers are very important any married couples lives in that a successful family must have children food and the head of the family must be strong to defend and protect and fend for the family. W hile the woman must provide food take care of the children and be strong as the jungle animal to carryout her matrimonial duties. Marriage in Kom can either be polygamous or monogamous it depends on the individual concerned. Apart from the traditional marriage which comprises of three main phrases of which families choose either to do all or just one, there are also some other forms of marriages the civil marriage, and the religious marriages. These two other marriages are choices of families thus; they are not of traditional importance to the Kom society. What can be defined as a marriage procedure is the marriage rite which plays an important role in marriage ceremony. With the absence of these rites the marriage procedure is considered fruitless. As time is passing by the Kom people have experienced evolution in marriage procedure and rites, that is why this paper will seek to find out while marriage have evolved? What have caused the evolution? and the effect of it on traditional marriage rites and Kom tradition as a whole which the people see it as problematic to their culture. PROBLEM STATEMENT In matrilineal societies like kom bride-wealth is not transferred because the children belong to the wifes clan or lineage and will inherit from their mothers group the husbands heirs are his sisters children, and not his own children who instead inherit from his wifes brothers, their maternal uncles. In Kom tradition, the groom is asked to pay bride price in cash and in material form like the various drums of oil, meat fire wood and host of other subsidiaries. This huge demands scared many young men from marrying. Some migrate and work in the plantations for year to get the necessary items for marriage, this make most of them to marry late since they have to work for years to obtain what will be demanded from them by their prosperous in laws. Another factor that hinders marriage is the cultural notion of witchcraft, the period given to the grooms family to wait, is usually the time the brides family consults a diviner to know the social background of the groom. The things they always look for are witchcraft, murderer, illness like madness, and mysterious death. When any of these ills are found they proposal will be turned down. The fact that marriage at times is strategic it is a problem to these people because background survey must be done to accord marriage which means it is not based on love. Intercultural marriages are also a hindrance to marriage in Kom, parents do not allow their child to marry out of the tribe because some cultural ideologies. For example daughters and sons are no suppose to get married to Bayangi tribe this because the tribe is noted for sorcery. A kom daughter or son that does this, invites evil into the tribe thus some people remain unmarried because the only companion suitable for marriage is from this tribe. Forceful marriages also hinders to marriage, in this society people are forced to marry because of poverty. For example the familys only way to recover its investment in a daughter may be to have her married in exchange for a dowry. Some fathers forced their daughters into marriages with men wealthy enough to give cattle, goats and money; in some cases the father owns the responsibility to get a wife for his first son. Thus he forces his girl child to a man who will pay her bride wealth so that it can be transferred to his sons wife. The preference of the individual is considered insignificant, in this situation even if the marriage holds it does not last for long, the couple end up in devoice. Education brings about class segregation in the society, people who are educated go for educated partners for marriage .Those who suffer the weight of this cultural practice are the females, and there is the problem of discrepancies in social values: some parents, especially in Kom, prefer sending only their male children to school and keeping the females at home. They argue that female education is a bad investment, the educated female child would later grow up and marry into another family, and so all her education would only benefit her husband and her new family. With modernity these girls suffer a set back in marriage because they educated men go looking for learned women even out of the tribe. RESEARCH QUESTION To what extent has the socio cultural evolution of marriage affected traditional marriage rites and Kom culture? With respect to this main research question the following specific questions can be asked. What is marriage to a Kom man? Why do people marry? Who is entitled to marriage? What age is one suppose to get married? Is marriage same today as the past? What are the changes? What are the causes of these changes? What are the impacts of these changes on marriage? OBJECTIVES To answer the above questions, the following objectives shall be considered. Specific objectives To point out the evolution of traditional marriage rites from past to present To assess the effect of evolution on Kom culture To investigate the strategies they are using to maintain these rites Finally to evaluate the positive effects of evolution in this institution of marriage. METHODOLOGY This investigation will be carried out in different parts of the eight satellites villages that make up the Kom kingdom. The methodology use will be divided into two parts; data collection and data analysis. Data and Information Collection Data for ethnographic work will be collected from primary and secondary sources Acquisition of Secondary data Data will be collected from both published and unpublished secondary sources. They will include documents and relevant web sites on the Internet. These documents will include textbooks, archives, dissertations thesis, journals, periodicals, magazine and native narratives. Acquisition of Primary Data This will involve fieldwork. Fieldwork constitutes a major source of data in anthropological research. That is field trips, interviews, direct observations and questionnaires. This will be in light to obtain information symbolic interpretation of marriage rites different parts of the eight villages. Approximately 130 people will be interviewed, random sampling methods will be used to interview those concerned. This will be accomplished by informal interviews and interaction with the main actors. Participant observation will not be lift out since this will help to get first hand information on how the marriage rites is being carried out. This information will be collected with respect to the social, cultural and historical perspective of the tribe Data Analyses After collecting these data, it is going to be sorted, classified, analyzed and interpreted. The data will be analysed with the use of both qualitative and quantitative techniques. Tables, percentages, charts and graphs will be used. DELINEATION RESEARCH DOMAIN Thematic Delineation of Research Domain Marriage is a social, religious and traditional legal union of individuals that creates kinship. It is the oldest institution which can be found in every human culture, although the forms and rules differ either polygamy, monogamy etc. All traditional marriages ceremonies have rites that give it a special grandeur. These rites are having symbolic meaning attached to the people of a particular culture. The word symbolic comes from the word symbol which can be anything such as objects, picture, sound, sign, mark, or any gesture that represents a different meaning, for example cam wood symbolises blood or danger and white stands for purity. Therefore, symbolism is the ironical representation of something that carries a particular meaning. Marriage rites are all symbols and meaning of different things in different cultural context. Evolution is simply the act of change from one stage to another for example the change of traditional marriage rite from past to present. Geographical and Socio-Cultural Delineation of Study Area Kom is one of 250 indigenous ethnic groups or tribe of Cameroon which is situated about is 50 miles from the North West capital of Bamenda. There almost 126,000 inhabitants with an area of about 300 square miles. Kom is found in Boyo division with its administrative capital Fundong. It has three sub divisions Belo, Njinikom and Bum. There are 8 satellites villages that make up this tribe Achain, Akei, Baiso, Baicham, Bueni, Mbesinaku, Mbenkas and Mejang. The people speak Itaing Ikom as their language; it is the only unique tribe in the province that practice matrilineal line of descend where succession and marriage enthronement lies in the mother line. LITERATURE REVIEW Traditional marriage is a very interesting topic and has been of great concern to researchers and writers. They have tried to know what married is all about, those involved in married, the rites performed during traditional marriage that identify as members of that community, and the problems they face in married. They are also seeking to identify some proposed solutions to these problems. The works of these researchers or writers will be analyzed in regard to this ethnographic research work in the subsequent paragraph. According by the (Journal of Religion and Science Published 15 2005 @2010 by the joint publication Board of Zygon, rituals serves to express those cosmic beliefs not for the scientific purpose of explaining or controlling the cosmos but for the existential purpose of giving human beings a placein it. This journal points out that it expresses beliefs about society not only by keeping human beings in their social place but giving them a social place. The traditional rite perform during traditional marriage in Kom gives the couple concern a place in the society of Kom. It gives them the base to perfom other rituals within their marriage and out of the marriage unit also thus it gives them a wider place in the social unit in the society. (Jayaram V @2000-2010 Hinduwebsite.com). He potrays the marriage rite perfom by the Hindu society during traditional wedding, the fire ceremony ( homam). The sacred fire is lit and the priests chant sacred mantras offering obligations to various gods to make marriage a succes and bless the couple. This is in line with the Komtraditional marriage rite where fire is the only objectthat lits the house when the bribe is being bnrought forward to the would be family. This rite symbilse unity and love between the two families, to the Kom people is the source of food and food brings love and unity to families andthe society at large. (John Wall 2000 ) in his writing states that marriage is a sacrament of marital love which finds its further expression in parents love for fruit of their sexuality. This was the case in Kom in the past, marriage was considered to be fruitful if their union was blessed with children. Today, this statement is far fetch people get married not because the want to get children but because they have some other particular strings attached to it for wealth and adventure. Thus children are not really important in marriage in kom as compare to the past. You can find a family without children, therefore marriage as a sacrament of marital love which finds its further expression in parents love for their sexuality is barely exist. (Kramers K Gthinji 2008 ) view point about traditional marriage , is a marriage between between a man and woman which is the most acceptable form of marriage in the society. To him traditional marriage conforms to the traditional culture and religion and this can be polygamy or monogamy. These marriage categories is cultural accepted by it depends on individual to chose which type of marriage to go in to. In Kom polygamy was the highly practiced marriage this was because a large family means wealth. Those who could not afford enough to go for many wives practiced monogamy. With the evolution of time and modernity,marriage in this society is monogamy people hardly do go for polygamous marriages again. CONCLUSION Marriage is a union between people and it is the oldest institution that has ever existed since from creation when God created man woman as husband and wife. Marriage should be based on love it should not be a trade where human beings are sold as commodities as the case of bride price, where men are tasked to pay higher bride price if the bride is educated. Some traditional rites should be modernised, traditional leaders should put a moderate price for bride price and a fixed amount of material goods for this purpose if only if the goods are of important to the marriage. Some rite should be kept out of the scene of marriage. In a nut shell marriage rituals are good because they attaches a lot important to marriage, some of them are prayers for a fruitful marriage. The evolution of marriage its rite has played a very tremendous role in the Kom society both positively and negatively. REFERENCES Carol Ann Muller 1999: Rituals of Fertility and the Sacrifice of Desire. Nazarite Womens Performance in South Africa. Publishing House .the University of Chicago Press Chicago and London. J.L Comaroff 1980: The Meaning Of Marriage Payment. Linda.S Cordell, Stephen J. Beckerman 1980: The Versality of Kinship Roy Willis 1975: The Interpretation of Symbolism. S.E Smith 2006: Marriage Past and Present, Future? Pro Devisch Rennat 2008/2009 Course Document. Wayne Jackson July 28, 2004: As Designed by God. Goody, Jack, and S. J. Tambiah. 1973. Bride wealth and Dowry. Cambridge, U.K.:Cambridge University Press. J. L. Cmaroff 1980: The Meaning of Marriage Payment. Kuper, Adam. 1982. Wives for Cattle: Bride wealth and Marriage in Southern Africa. Meyer Fortes 1972: Marriage in the Tribal Societies Sheila Ellison 2000: The courage to Be a Single Mother: Becoming Whole Again after Divorce. S E Smith 2006: Marriage past, and present, future. Wayne Jackson, July 28 2004: Marriage As Designed by God Maggie Gallagher, 2001: What is marriage for? Public purposes or Marriage Law.
Monday, August 19, 2019
My bookreport is about living with someone who drinks too much. I chose this topic because hit its very close to home. In the book that I read it tells about other children who are or have grown up with an alcoholic parent. I learned alot about acoholism which is what makes you an alcoholic. I also learned about what some kids go through while growing up. This book tells you how to deal with someone who is an alcoholic and how to deal with your self as well.This book was very interesting and I really enjoyed it. First I would like to point out that kids who live with a parent that drinks all of the time feel as thogh they are the reason why that person drinks all the time. Children often tell that person that they do not like them when they have been drinking. The first chapter in my book was about a girl named Amy who wanted to tell her story about her mother that drank too much. She writes in here about her quite spot which was her room. She went there when her mother was drinking because often her mother was not herself. She tells about how she first noticed that her mother was not like other mothers when she went to other peoples homes. The next chapters explain what acoholism is. It is a disease that when a person wants to quite drinking can not.First of all you will notice that an alcoholic will often gulp their drinks, they can probably drink alot before the get drunk, they may stay drunk for several days, they will also have a favirote drink, and mya change their favirote drink to another. They may also hide thier drinking. Acoholism is an illness and is very sick. It is very hard for an alcoholic to stop drinking because they are afraid to and they know how they feel when they do not drink. Alcoholics usually try to stop drinking because they maybe have hurt someone they love or may also be on the verge of losing their job.People who stop drinking sometimes may have to go to the hospital for a period of time this is called detoxification. This is the best way for treatment when it is hard for them to stop. The withdrawl symptoms are things such as shaking, sweating, fever, pains and nausea.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
The Egyptian Pyramids When most people think of Ancient Egypt they think of Pyramids. To construct such great monuments required a mastery of architecture, social organization, and art that few cultures of that period could achieve. The oldest pyramid, the Step-Pyramids, grow out of the abilities of two men, King Djoser and Imhotep. Djoser, the second king of 3rd dynasty, was the first king to have hired an architect, Imhotep, to design a tomb (Time-Life Books, 74). Imhotep was known as the father of mathematics, medicine, architecture, and as the inventor of the calendar (White, 40). He had a great idea of stacking mastabas until they reached six tiers, a total of 60 meters high and its base 180 meters by 108 meters (Casson, 118). A glistening costing of limestone was added to the mastabas that made them shimmer in the sun. The main feature of the pyramid was its 92-foot underground shafts and burial room lined with pink granite. It was the first time that this feature appeared (White, 41). Imhotep surrounded DjoserÃ¢â¬â¢s pyramid with a number of funerary courtyards and temples. He then, surrounded these complexes with a mile long protective wall (Time-Life Books, 74). Another pyramid was KhufuÃ¢â¬â¢s Great Pyramid. It is the largest tomb every built. It was the height of a forty-story building, and its base was the average size of eight football fields. The pyramid contains about 2,300,000 stone blocks. The limestone was covered with a layer of polished stone to add a shine. Deep inside the pyramid are the tomb chambers, one for the king and another for the queen. Narrow shafts lined with granite lead the way to the tomb chambers (Time-Life Books, 75). Social organization was another key factor in creating... ...0). The Ancient Egyptians were one of the first people to develop such well-proportioned figure. The Egyptian painter painted murals inside of the pyramids depicting the things that the pharaoh accomplished in his life (Cannon, 50). In conclusion, to create such a great monument, like the Step-Pyramid, took the mastery of architecture, social organization, and art that was amazing for that period. Today, we still do not know how the Ancient Egyptians created such grand monuments. Also, we are still fascinated about all the artifacts inside the tomb, and the possible uses for them. It will forever be a mystery. Bibliography Casson, Lionel. Ancient Egypt. 1965. Time Inc. NY, NY. Editors of Time-Life Books. Egypt: Land of the Lost Pharaohs. 1992. Time-Life Books, VA. White, Jon Manchip. Everyday Life in Ancient Egypt. 1963. G.P. PutnamÃ¢â¬â¢s Sons, NY.
East of Eden: A study in human developmentÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The characteristics of people are formed by multiple factors. In many situations, children are raised under similar conditions, however, their later characteristics and life choices are very different. In the book, East of Eden, author John Steinbeck explores the development of humans, from childhood, to adulthood, and eventually, to death. East of Eden, by John Steinbeck, is a genealogical novel about the lives of the Trasks, particularly the main character in the book, Adam Trask. Along the way, the Hamiltons, Ames, and many other characters are introduced. Steinbeck makes a point of showing the continually changing nature of some characters, while describing the ceaseless staticness of others. In East of Eden, John Steinbeck presents his views on the construction of human behavior and the components that are incorporated in it. Setting is an important element in East of Eden. Described are beautiful, panoramical views of the surrounding landscapes of the Salinas Valley, California. "The Salinas Valley . . . is a swale between two ranges of mountains. . . . . On the wide level acres of the valley, the topsoil lays deep and fertile. . . . . Under the live oaks, shaded and dusky, the maidenhair flourished and gave a good smell, and under the mossy banks of the watercourses whole clumps of five-fingered ferns and goldy-backs hung down" (Steinbeck p. 480). Steinbeck then goes on to describe the human history of these areas. The groups of peoples that lived there are described in sweeping generalizations. "First there were Indians, an inferior breed without energy, inventiveness, or culture . . . their warfare was a weary pantomime. Then the hard, dry Spaniards came explor... ...dies the original Hebrew text and finds that the verb used there is "timshel." TimshelÃ¢â¬â¢s literal English translation is "thou mayest." During the course of the book, Steinbeck transforms the word into a metaphor for a style of living. It comes to describe the freedom of choice in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Steinbeck recognizes the fact that one's environment can affect them. However, he also recognizes one can work with what they are given and make the best of it. Steinbeck best sums up these views in a dialog between Samuel and Adam. "You canÃ¢â¬â¢t make a racehorse of a pig," said Adam. "No," said Samuel, "but you can make a very fast pig" (659). Ã Works Cited Steinbeck, John. The Grapes of Wrath, The Moon is Down, Cannery Row, East of Eden, Of Mice and Men. New York: Heinemann/Octopus, 1979. pp.475 - 896. Steinbeck, John. East of Eden. New York: Viking, 1952.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Signal Sets Company contracts to deliver one hundred 52-inch plasma high-definition television sets to a new retail customer, Tuner TV Store, on May 1, with payment to be made on delivery. Signal tenders delivery in its own truck. TunerÃ¢â¬â¢s manager notices that some of the cartons have scrape marks. TunerÃ¢â¬â¢s owner phones SignalÃ¢â¬â¢s office and asks whether the sets might have been damaged as they were being loaded. Signal assures Tuner that the sets are in perfect condition. Tuner tenders Signal a check, which Signal refuses, claiming that the first delivery to new customers is always for cash. Tuner promises to pay the cash within two days. Signal leaves the sets with Tuner, which stores them in its warehouse pending its Ã¢â¬Å"Grand Opening SaleÃ¢â¬ on May 15. Two days later, TunerÃ¢â¬â¢s stocker opens some of the cartons and discovers that a number of the sets are damaged beyond ordinary repair. Signal claims Tuner has accepted the sets and is in breach by not paying on delivery. Will Signal succeed on these claims? Explain. Signal wonÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily succeed on his claims. Ã¢â¬Å"Acceptance of the goods prevents the buyer or lessee from exercising the right of rejection, but it does not necessarily prevent the buyer or lessee from pursuing other remediesÃ¢â¬ (Business Law Today; page 337). In some circumstances, a buyer or lessee are allowed to revoke their acceptance of the goods. The revocation of acceptance is not effective until the seller has been notified. The seller must also be notified within a reasonable time after the buyer discovers or should have discovered the grounds for revocation. Tuner noticed cartons with scrape marks and right away questioned Signal, but Signal assured they would not be damaged. A couple days later TunerÃ¢â¬â¢s stocker opens some cartons and then discovers the damages, notifying Signal. Two days later is within a reasonable time. Therefore Tuner has not breached for accepting the goods. He could now keep the goods and recover damages caused by SignalÃ¢â¬â ¢s breach. Signal also stated that Tuner had breached contract for not paying on delivery. Payments can be made by any means agreed on by both parties. Under this contract there is no specific type of payment set. Ã¢â¬Å" If the seller demands cash when the buyer offers a check, credit card, or the like, theÃ seller must permit the buyer reasonable time to obtain legal tenderÃ¢â¬ (Business Law Today; page 329). In this case Tuner offered Signal a check on the day of delivery, but Signal refuses, claiming the first delivery to new customers is always for cash. So signal must than give Tuner reasonable time to pay. In this case Tuner promises to pay the cash within two days. Therefore Signal is wrong and Tuner did not breach for not paying on day of delivery. Signal is most likely not going to succeed on his claims.
Friday, August 16, 2019
1. Adam Smith, 77 years of age, is a male patient who was admitted from a nursing home to the intensive care unit with septic shock secondary to urosepsis. The patient has a Foley catheter in place from the nursing home with cloudy greenish, yellow-colored urine with sediments. The nurse removes the catheter after obtaining a urine culture and replaces it with a condom catheter attached to a drainage bag since the patient has a history of urinary and bowel incontinence. The patient is confused, afebrile, and hypotensive with a blood pressure of 82/44 mm Hg. His respiratory rate is 28 breaths/min and the pulse oximeter reading is at 88% room air, so the physician ordered 2 to 4 L of oxygen per nasal cannula titrated to keep SaO2 greater than 90%. The patient responded to 2 L of oxygen per nasal cannula with a SaO2 of 92%. The patient has diarrhea. His blood glucose level is elevated at 160 mg/dL. The white blood count is 15,000 and the Creactive protein, a marker for inflammation, is elevated. The patient is being treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics and norepinephrine (Levophed) beginning at 2 mcg/min and titrated to keep systolic blood pressure greater than 100 mm Hg. A subclavian triple lumen catheter was inserted and verified by chest x-ray for correct placement. An arterial line was placed in the right radial artery to closely monitor the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s blood pressure during the usage of the vasopressor therapy. (Learning Objectives 6 and 7) a. What predisposed the patient to develop septic shock? b. What potential findings would suggest that the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s septic shock is worsening from the point of admission?Ã c. The norepinephrine concentration is 16 mg in 250 mL of normal saline (NS). Explain how the nurse should administer the medication. What nursing implications are related to the usage of a vasoactive medication? d. Explain why the effectiveness of a vasoactive medication decreases as the septic shock worsens. What treatment should the nurse anticipate to be obtained to help the patient? e. Explain the importance for nutritional support for this patient and which type of nutritional support should be provided f. What are your priority interventions? Nursing/ Medical ( 3-4 ) 2. Carlos Adams was involved in a motor vehicle accident and suffered blunt trauma to his abdomen. Upon presentation to the emergency department, his vital signs are as follows: temperature, 100.9Ã °F; heart rate, 120 bpm; respiratory rate, 20 breaths/min; and blood pressure, 90/54 mm Hg. His abdomen is firm, with bruising around the umbilicus. He is alert and oriented, but complains of dizziness when changing positions. The patient is admitted for management of suspected hypovolemic shock. The following orders are written for the patient: Place two large-bore IVs and infuse 0.9% NS at 125 mL/hr/line Obtain complete blood count, serum electrolytes Oxygen at 2 L/min via nasal cannula Type and cross for 4 units of blood Flat plate of the abdomen STAT (Learning Objectives 1, 4, and5) a. Describe the pathophysiologic sequence of events seen with hypovolemic shock. b. What are the major goals of medical management in this patient? c. What is the rationale for placing two large-bore IVs? d. What are advantages of using 0.9% NS in this patient? e. What is the rationale for placing the patient in a modified Trendelenburg position? Case Study, Chapter 13, Fluid and Electrolytes: Balance and Disturbance 1. Mrs. Dean is 75-year-old woman admitted to the hospital for a small bowel obstruction. Her medical history includes hypertension. Mrs. Dean is NPO. She has a nasogastric (NG) tube to low continuous suction. She has an IV of 0.9% NS at 83 mL/hr. Current medications include furosemide 20 mg daily and hydromorphone 0.2 mg every 4 hours, as needed for pain. The morning electrolytes reveal serum potassium of 3.2 mEq/L. a. What are possible causes of a low potassium level? b. What action should the nurse take in relation to the serum potassium level? c. What clinical manifestations might the nurse assess in Mrs. Dean? 2. Conrad Jackson is a 28-year-old man who presents to the emergencyÃ department with severe fatigue and dehydration secondary to a 4-day history of vomiting. During the interview, he describes attending a family reunion and states that perhaps he Ã¢â¬Å"ate something bad.Ã¢â¬ Upon admission his vital signs are a temperature of 102.7Ã °F, heart rate of 116 bpm, respiratory rate of 18 breaths/min, and blood pressure of 86/54 mm Hg. The nurse also notes the patient has dry mucous membranes and tenting of skin. The physician orders an IV to be started with 0.45% normal saline, and orders a serum electrolytes and an arterial blood gas. (Learning Objective 7) The following results are returned from the laboratory: Sodium (Na+) 150 Potassium (K+) 5.5 Chloride (ClÃ ¯) 110 BUN 42 Creatinine 0.8 Glucose 86 pH 7.32 PaCO2 35 HCO3Ã ¯ 20 PaO2 90 O2 Sat 98% a. What is your interpretation of this arterial blood gas sample? b. Explain the high potassium in this patient. c. Calculate the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s anion gap: d. What is the interpretation of this anion gap? 1. Complete a plan of care for a patient with an electrolyte imbalance: fluid volume deficit and fluid volume excess; sodium deficit (hyponatremia) and sodium excess (hypernatremia); potassium deficit (hypokalemia) and potassium excess (hyperkalemia). Specifically, include altered laboratory values. 2. Create a Plan care for a patient with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS).
Thursday, August 15, 2019
The Federal Bureaucracy hires thousands of employees to complete specific goals. Those employed attempt to achieve these goals proficiently, however their goals and procedures are part of a continual struggle for power; which inevitably leads to ineffective behavior known as red tape (Pearson Education). Many have attempted to change the way the federal bureaucracy does business in order to help improve the services provided to the public. The federal bureaucracy falls into many categories Ã¢â¬â line agencies and staff agencies. Line agencies provide services while staff agencies gather information for the chief executive officer. Line agencies are comprised of executive departments, government agencies and corporations, independent regulatory commissions, and other central agencies and services. It is these line agencies that constrict and regulate the lives of citizens (Pearson Education). For the most part, the executive branch controls the federal bureaucracy; however Congress monitors the bureaucracy to ensure that it acts properly. Many if not all people are affected on a daily basis by the federal bureaucracy some more than others depending on what their daily life consists of. While some of these regulations are excessive the agencies were created as a way to protect lives and the environment. One area that regulates all citizens is taxes. No one can escape this. If property is owned taxes are paid each year to not only the state but also the county in which property is located. Aside from property tax there is also sales tax which people will pay even if property is owned or not. Everyone who works will pay a federal tax at the end of the year on their wages and interest earned. Each household or person will pay taxes based on their marital status, dependent, and gross yearly wage. There are those few select that will not have to pay a federal tax due to the fact that they make a salary that is below the poverty line (IRS, 2008). Aside from the IRS regulating daily living, the Federal Bureaucracy also has a hand in regulating our transportation. The Department of Transportation (DOT) was created by Congress in 1966 and signed into law by President Lyndon Johnson to ensure efficient, safe and prompt transportation for the nation. It was created to provide a convenient transportation system that meets our vital national interests and enhances the quality of life of the American people (DOT 2010). The mission of the DOT is to develop and coordinate policies that will provide a proficient and economical national transportation system while keeping the best interest of the environment a priority. However, with all these new forms of transportation came pollution something that our nation has been and is continuing to struggle with. Just as the United States needs the military to protect issues around the world, it also needs an agency to protect its natural resources at home. President Nixon proposed The Environmental Act in 1970 to fulfill the role of protecting the land, air, and water along with the health of the citizens living in it. The EPA was established not only to reverse years of neglect from industrial growth, but also as a way to ensure that the government, industry and public take better care to protect the delicate balance of nature for upcoming generations. The primary responsible of the EPA is to enforce environmental regulations such as the clean air act. This agency also has the task of helping Congress pass environmental laws and has the power to issue sanctions and levy fines. On a local level the EPA assists state government with their own environmental concerns by providing research grants and graduate fellowships, working with the public on environmental projects helping them get directly involved with the cause. Another area that has regulations on our daily lives is in healthcare. The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is the United States GovernmentÃ¢â¬â¢s principal agency for protecting the health of all Americans. They represent a quarter of all federal expenditures, and oversee more grant dollars than all other federal agencies combined. The Department of Health and Humans services works hand in hand with state and local governments, and many HHS funded services are provided at the local level by state agencies. This department includes over 300 programs covering a wide variety of different services. Some include financial assistance, head start programs, and child and substance abuse. One service in particular the FDA or Food and Drug Administration has become a well known federal agency and effects the lives of all. The FDA assures the safety of foods and cosmetics, and the safety and effectiveness of pharmaceuticals and medical devices. These products account for almost 25 cents of every dollar in consumer spending. FDA is responsible for advancing the public health by aiding in the progress of speeding up advances that make medicines more effective and affordable. The Food and Drug Administration also has responsibility for regulating the manufacturing, marketing and distribution of tobacco products to protect the public health and to reduce tobacco use by minors. What most are not aware of is that the FDA plays a very important role in the Nations counterterrorism as well. They do this by ensuring the security of the food supply along with helping develop medical products to aide in the response to emerging public health threats. The FDA acts as a watchdog for our society to ensure the companies are complying with standards that are safe and have the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s best interest at heart. Without the FDA regulating society doctors would be able to hand out drugs and write prescriptions without knowing what reactions and side effects could happen to the patient. While this is only five federal agencies that affect the lives of many on a daily basis, it is hard to pick one out since each one is very important. The one of most importance would seem to be the Environmental Protection Agency. The main objective of the EPA was to streamline several other programs as a pollution control. The Clean Air Act, Clean Water and Toxic Substance control were all established to control pollution. Currently the EPA is working with the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to get regulations on Greenhouse Gas emissions. They are taking appropriate steps to enable the production of a new generation of clean vehicles on light duty vehicles. These steps were presented by President Obama in May 2010. Finally on September 30, 2010 The EPA and NHTSA issued a notice of intent to begin developing new standards for greenhouse gases and fuel economy for light-duty vehicles for the 2017-2025 model years (EPA, 2010). This goes to show that while 2017 seems like a long time the EPA is taking the initiative to make a difference and continue to find ways to help the environment and public health.