Friday, May 31, 2019
Ontological ShiftIn Michael Heims essay The Cyber Space Dialectic, he discusses how our culture is going through an ontological breakage fashioned by the Internet. Heim articulates his theory of what dialectic is and how this ontological shift is creating a novel dialectic. The Internet is the of import place today where people from all over the world exchange and communicate their ideas and feelings. The Internet is a brand-new corporation in itself. The ontological shift into the cyberspace times pull up stakes change the way we think, and the way we act it will change our overall sense of being. These change that Heim calls an ontological shift has brought on questions about changing corporation. These are similar to the questions that Peter Drucker and Benjamin Barber brought up when they discussed about creating a new society. Will society benefit from this new society in which its central being is cyberspace? This is a serious question since we are living in the phase t hat is changing into the cyber world now. How will this change affect this new technologically inclined society?We have all used the Internet to talk to other people, either using have words or emails. We converse with people with different backgrounds and cultures. When interacting with different types of people, it means that we are working in groups and collaborating. This is what the Internet is all about. Interacting with all(prenominal) other in new ways, and learning how to open yourself to other points of views and new ideas. In his essay Heim states, Computer networks foster virtual communities that cut across geography time zones. Virtual community seems a cure-all for isolated people who complain about their isolation. Locked in metal boxes on urban freeways, a population enjoys socializing with fellow human being through computer networks(Heim 374).As Heim explains in his essay, the Internet can bring together communities that are isolated from the rest of the world. It helps communities and different types of people communicate with each other. It creates the idea of group work through computer networks. This was also one theme in Barbers essay Group work is what makes ideas carry through and productive. In Barbers Making Civil Society Real he states,Civic responsibility, being a partnership between government, civil society, and the private grocery necessarily depends on the active collaboration of political leaders, citizens and business people(Barber 106).Our responsibility as a society is to collaborate our selves with all the groups that make this society function.
Thursday, May 30, 2019
A Summery of the Life and Writings of John Stuart Mill After reading 100% of the book, New Ideas From Dead Economists, I chose to write a little summery of John Stuart Mill. I did a little discloseside research on the subject, be bring in his theories and philosophies were intriguing to me. I was impressed by his change in his views as he entered his mid twenties. John Stuart Mill was born in London on May 20, 1806, and was the oldest son of James Mill. His education, as a boy, was carried kayoed by his father, James Mill. Johns discipline was extremely rigid, as a result, he believed it gave him the intellectual advantage of a quarter century on his contemporaries. Later in life Mill recognized that his fathers extreme system of intellectual discipline gave him little time to develop mixer and emotional relationships with others. He regretted this aspect of his childhood. Mill was considered a leader in thought at the young age of twenty-one. This is when he encount ered a mental crisis. The cause of the crisis, extreme mental and physical strain, gave him as he called it, a dull state of nerves. He sureized that the goals in his life, that his father had given him, stolen the feelings out of him. After many months of despair, he found that the emotions within him were not dead. One important factor in this emotional realization was a woman by the name of Mrs. Taylor. She was known to help Mill in authoring works of his, and a good friend. While she was married, Mill held a close relationship with her. After the wipeout of her husband, Mrs. Taylor and John Mill were married in 1851. After this he had great success publishing in multiple literary journals. These articles had ranged from those relating to philosophy and social to semipolitical and economic. One of his earliest was with The Westminster Review, but were mostly for The London Review. Through these articles, we can trace his gradual development and change in his radical politics . His first real intellectual work appeared in 1843, System of Logic, Ratiocinative and Inductive. This was followed by his, Essays on some Unsettled Questions of Political Economy, in 1844, and, Principles of Political Economy in 1848.
Wednesday, May 29, 2019
Dennis RodmanTitle Bad As I Wanna BeAuthor Dennis Rodman with Tim Keown of pages 258SettingThe book takes place in Dallas, Texas where DennisRodman lived while he was a kid, Detroit, Michigan where DennisRodman played basketball for the Detroit Pistons, San Antonio,Texas where Dennis Rodman played basketball for the San AntonioSpurs, and lucre, Illinois where Dennis Rodman is currentlyplaying for the Chicago Bulls.CharacterDennis Rodman. A pro basketball player who playsfor the Chicago Bulls. He averages 18.7 rebounds a game which90% of the time is the best in the NBA. He is currently making10 million dollars a year. He is split and has a daughternamed Alexis. He says Alexis is the only reason he is heretoday.SummaryOn April of 1993 Dennis Rodman sat in his pick-up truckwith a gun in his lap deciding whether he should kill himself.He was in depression at the time because the Detroit Pistons weredoing very poorly that year considering they were Champions ofthe World just terzetto years before that. The NBA had changedDennis Rodman into someone he didnt even know. It seemed asthough Dennis spent his life trying to be what others wanted himto be. Once he agnise he had to start living for himself,people perceived him as being rebellious and as most people sayweird. Dennis Rodman just wants everyone to know who he reallyis and to accept him for himself and to let him do his job.ThemeI learned that Dennis Rodman is not as crazy aseveryone thinks he is. He is actually a very normal person. Ithink the reason this book was released is because Dennis Rodmanhas a very interesting life. People want to know what it is like
My Philosophy StatementEducation is a very important aspect of our lives. It is our preparation that makes us who we are and determines what we become. Therefore, education is not something to be taken lightly. As a teacher, my goal mastermind be to provide the best possible education for my students. Every student is unique. I must see students for who they are individually and respect their ideas and opinions. Each student has a different learning style. I must take this into consideration because I want to provide a constructive learning opportunity for every student. I believe that every student has the potential to learn. My philosophy at this pull down is progressivism. William James and John Dewey are accredited for developing the characteristically American philosophy that is progressivism. Progressivism relies on the theory that the student should be the focal point. By adjusting the course of instruction and teaching techniques to reflect the students nee ds and interests, the teacher is encouraging the students desire to learn. Another theory of progressivism is that of a democratic system. Students exit fare better in life if they are exposed to the ideas and cultures of different ethnicities and personalities early. By encouraging group work, instead of solo work that will lead to competitions, the students will be more open minded and will be better prepared for the diverse world. A branch of progressivism is logic and it is one that the students will come to know by the progressivist ideal that what is learned in the classroom has relevance to the real world. Progressivists believe that education should mirror life. Education often uses other(prenominal) experiences to gain more knowledge, much like life. Therefore, e... ...book.The teaching methods used in a progressivism classroom supports the idea of problem-based learning wherein the students are required to develop headmaster solutions to existing or potential so cietal problems. Together with the teacher and classmates, students are given the opportunity to speculate and question the world around them and the world awaiting them. deep down small peer groups, for instance, students are encouraged to discuss, share and compromise. The teacher is there to encourage this process rather than to provide prescribed solutions. Similarly, the learning environment is collaborative and democratic, giving opportunity for all to speak their minds and receive feedback from peers as well as the teacher. This continuous loop of feedback, potentially positive or negative, serves as the marrow of assessment for problem-solving based instruction.
Tuesday, May 28, 2019
The Internet as a Learning ToolThe Internet has a universal appeal for most people. We (in the United States) have become pendent on it for our daily routines. We shop, send mail, read the news, look up movie reviews, etc., using the Internet. We depend on this service, because we have told ourselves that It has made our lives easier. We advocate the use of comparable technologies within the classroom, because we are convinced that the use of computers and having access to the Internet is the best way to educate our children so they asshole have an equal chance to filter out their potential and accomplish their goals. It is true that the Internet is a great source of information. Its value as a alternative is immeasurable. Unfortunately, to get this benefit we have to kick in a price. In some cases this comes as loss of privacy. The Internet and the digital world are a part of the public sphere thereof, our speech has to be measured and revised to be appropriate for this realm causing our free speech to be limited. Access to the Internet is also restricted to a trusted group of people. One has to own a computer, or have access to one to be able to make use of its benefits. Internet access is uneven, therefore unfair. The other potential problem with the Internet is the access that people with shady intents or with low morality have to it. Anyone with the means to a computer can be online with our innocent children. Are their intents innocent also? In the realm of education, I think that the Internet can be a great resource for information. Research can be easily planned and implemented for the benefit of both students and educators. Unfortunately, this brings us back to the issue of limited access. Some students are much readily... ...ose to a multimedia / interactive classroom as we think we are. The school district (LAUSD) has spent several millions on purchasing computers and hooking them up to the Internet. The accent is on acquiring technology i nstead of implementing it. I still think that the novelty of computers and its tremendous appeal to students of all ages should be utilized to teach. Works CitedFast, cushy and FREE Webpages. http//www.webspawner.com/ (1 Nov. 2001). How to Publish Web Pages. http//itsweb.hartford.edu (1 Nov. 2001). How to Publish Web Pages to an Internet Server. http//www.surfwise.com/support/publish.htm (1 Nov. 2001). Personal Publishing. http//www.utexas.edu/ (1 Nov. 2001). Publishing Your Page for Free. http//home.san.rr.com/artbytes/publish.htm (1 Nov. 2001). Yahoo GeoCities. http//geocities.yahoo.com (1 Nov. 2001).
The Internet as a Learning ToolThe Internet has a universal appeal for most people. We (in the United States) have become hooked on it for our daily routines. We shop, send mail, read the news, look up movie reviews, etc., using the Internet. We depend on this service, because we have told ourselves that It has made our lives easier. We advocate the use of convertible technologies within the classroom, because we are convinced that the use of computers and having access to the Internet is the best way to educate our children so they tin can have an equal chance to vex their potential and accomplish their goals. It is true that the Internet is a great source of information. Its value as a imaging is immeasurable. Unfortunately, to get this benefit we have to render a price. In some cases this comes as loss of privacy. The Internet and the digital world are a part of the public sphere and so, our speech has to be measured and revised to be appropriate for this realm causing our free speech to be limited. Access to the Internet is also restricted to a authentic group of people. One has to own a computer, or have access to one to be able to make use of its benefits. Internet access is uneven, therefore unfair. The other potential problem with the Internet is the access that people with shady intents or with low morality have to it. Anyone with the means to a computer can be online with our innocent children. Are their intents innocent also? In the realm of education, I think that the Internet can be a great resource for information. Research can be easily planned and implemented for the benefit of both students and educators. Unfortunately, this brings us back to the issue of limited access. Some students are more than readily... ...ose to a multimedia / interactive classroom as we think we are. The school district (LAUSD) has spent several millions on purchasing computers and hooking them up to the Internet. The ferocity is on acquiring technology inste ad of implementing it. I still think that the novelty of computers and its tremendous appeal to students of all ages should be utilized to teach. Works CitedFast, user-friendly and FREE Webpages. http//www.webspawner.com/ (1 Nov. 2001). How to Publish Web Pages. http//itsweb.hartford.edu (1 Nov. 2001). How to Publish Web Pages to an Internet Server. http//www.surfwise.com/support/publish.htm (1 Nov. 2001). Personal Publishing. http//www.utexas.edu/ (1 Nov. 2001). Publishing Your Page for Free. http//home.san.rr.com/artbytes/publish.htm (1 Nov. 2001). Yahoo GeoCities. http//geocities.yahoo.com (1 Nov. 2001).
Monday, May 27, 2019
Despite the Australian context, The Removalists, is able to dramatize convincingly issues, which are relevant to any society
In the influence, The Removalists, Williamson uses the Australian context to help dramatize various convincing issues, which are germane(predicate) to nine. The use of typical colloquial language and idioms in the play are the only features particularly related to the Australian context. Other features such as setting, stagecraft, lighting, and costumes lie common and universal to all society. To postulateher with the characters of Simmond, Ross, Kate, Kenny, Fiona and the removalist, the central themes of place, authoritarianism, violence, confrontation between sexes and prejudice are well illustrated. It is through The Removalists that Williamson make the audience aware of the decomposition in society and contrary at bottom life.The title of the play, The Removalists, directly and metaphorically suggests the police are removing the scandals from society through which abusive actor is used. It also implies that the decadence of authorities and baron within public forces is being removed from the control of law and order. These ideas of power are enhanced through characters and series of incidents of the play.The imbalance power relation is directly introduced in the beginning of the play when Simmond was auditioning Ross for his duty in the police force. Immediately, Simmonds relaxed sitting position in contrast with Ross uncomfortable and uneasy rest position depicts the various power status between the two. The motion of Simmond circling Ross further distinguishes the diametric amount of power and authority held by each character. Other than the finishing of stagecraft, physical body language also plays an important part in portraying social issues.As particularly highlighted by the character of Simmonds, it is common that power and violence, some of which are illegal and invalid, are being overused within the society for various reasons. In the case of Simmonds, he viciously and repulsively beats up Kenny in order to gain power, establish con trol and obtain his desires and wants. His continuous use of violence and power throughout the play reflects the obsession of power within society. People are often blinded by the sense of power and authority that they simply strive greedily and close scratch offlessly for power and neglect the sombre possible consequences that may bring in return.The sudden explosion of violence of Ross on helpless Kenny shows that everyone in society, even those of the least expected, do possess a certain kind of aggressive instinct within his/herself. This idea is enhanced through suspension atmosphere and the imagination of the audience while the violent damn scene between the two characters occurred off stage. The use of silence and pause after the bashing furthermore creates tension, which highlights the hidden power and ability within people in society such as Ross.The misuse of authority and abusive violence by officials are prominently examined in The Removalists, mainly through the char acters of Sergeant Simmonds and police constable Ross. The two police officers use Kenny as a punching bag in order to work out on their repressions and frustrations, and they can do so because they redeem come to take their own power as a matter of course. This effectively reflects that there are tremendous prejudices and pressures towards conformity in Australian society, which is strengthened by an implied threat of violence.Williamson also explores the unbalanced power held between different classes. For instance, as depicted by the character of Kate, who belongs to a wealthy high-class family, tends to ready power and control over her sister, Fiona, who belongs to a rather low-class one. This is also reflected through the contrasting costumes wore by the two as Kate is more expensively polished and more elegant than her younger sister, who has an easy innocent sensuality. Not only does Kate often manipulate and took advantage of Fionas innocence, but Simmond also dominates Fiona and the prostitutes at the brothel. This shows that the ones positioned at the top of the hierarchy tend to hold control and scrutinize those at the bottom of the hierarchy.The attempt of solving problems with more violence in the end of the play after Kennys death shows that part of society is tremendously corrupted by violence. Once a pattern of violence is accepted for any circumstances, it becomes welcome in all circumstances. As a result, people will subconsciously apply violence in an uncontrollable manner just as the beseech almost takes on the air of frenzied ritual of exorcism.Insults, assaults and aggressive use of words can also be seen as violence, as shown by Simmonds, who more often attack others verbally. He speaks of strong, harsh language, often containing swearwords and black irony in his speech to gainsay and insult his target opponents. Perhaps in Simmonds attitude to his junior, Constable Ross, especially after Kennys death, aggression is expressed by t he old towards the young. This reflects the doubtful and bitter resentment felt by the old against the challenge to their moral and institutional power.Knowledge and experiences are another important aspects, through which power is established. For instance, Kenny uses the knowledge of Kates private life and adultery to gain control over Kate. Similarly, the power of the removalist is neither exerted nor influenced in any way for he holds evidences and knowledge of real situation and the illegal violence involved. He is prepared to use this power of knowledge if his status is being threatened. It is also this power of knowledge that Simmond has over Ross, Kate and Fionas background that places him at a higher and more powerful status.The community itself is part responsible for such corruption in society, as they are the ones who tolerated such to occur. The removalist is a representation of this, as he refuses to help out or get involved into the bloody situation between the poli ce officers and Kenny, instead he allows the scene to happen. The attitude of the removalist being if nil interferes with me then I dont interfere with nobody. This effectively reflects not only the attitude of the community against illegal acts and conducts but also shows their selfishness and ignorance.The victims, who are mistreated and encountered unfairness, are also to be blamed as they are often reluctant to complain or take legal action because they fear reprisals of one sort or another. The community simply has a natural unwillingness to cross swords with established power such as the police force. The result of their impotent rage will in turn be expressed in fresh acts of violence on other victims.Those law-abiding and decent members of the force are another factor that helps to give immunity to criminally violent police. As represented by Constable Ross, the decent members generally failed to take actions necessary to halt their law-breaking colleagues. Instead help th e unlawful ones to engender up or even participate in the abusive violence with others. This is further enhanced by the removalists rhetorical claim, Do you think theyd the police come down and collar their own mates?.Unlike a regular violent incident, police brutality embodies a corruption of the law itself. When the law itself is the culprit, people in the community have no security and no avenue of redress.On the other hand, in the past peoples view and attitude towards wife bashing is rather negative. It is a common saying at the time that Never arrest a wife basher if he missus is still warm. At the level not so much of approval, but rather of unthinking social acceptance, is that the male-female relationship is rested on a frightening sub-stratum of violence. The popular language of sex is violent. The deep repression and frustrations expressed by Sergeant Simmonds in his outburst against Kate and Fiona are endemic in this culture. The societys code of aggressive masculinity involves the positive isolation of women in their reference as sexual objects. This implies an inhuman violence in sexual relationships, against which women are fighting and protesting for in recent years.The continuous change of power among characters throughout the play effectively suggests that power is mostly created, recreated, depoliticized and routinized within ones language and action. This is displayed as Simmonds control over situation fluctuates as Ross and Kate challenges repeatedly challenges his power. Kate mainly gains her power by overlap with Simmond. Her approach of sitting on Simmonds desk and letting him to place his arm around her, are evidential of the loss and gain of power between individuals in society.Moreover, Williamson explores problematical ideas in regards to the prejudice and racism in society. This is depicted through insulting language and name-calling to those that are different to the norm in society and with a different ethnic background. For instance, Christians are being named mick, which is just as insulting to the extent of calling Afro-Americans negro. This reflects that certain unfair and irrational conventions in society are passed on from the past and remains in present days.Through the character, stagecraft and playwright, Williamson prominently provoked many subtle ideas and social issues. As he examines and manipulates different forms of power in the play, Williamson proficiently convey the idea that power is a cancer that eats at the heart of all civilized society. In order to overcome such corruption in societies, the most realistic solutions lie in the fields of education, and more humane, and human-centered urban development. Through The Removalists, Williamson not only highlighted many social issues, but also more importantly, initiated in the field of education to provoke the community of their wrongs and fraud.
Sunday, May 26, 2019
I. IntroductionMarijuana has been one of the most researched medicates in the write up of pharmacology, and there is still considerable disagreement about its short-term and long-term effects. It was made an illicit drug in the United States, and many states have constituted harsh penalties for those convicted of possession of even small amounts. In the recent years, there has been a move toward decriminalization of ganja.The purpose of this study is to show why marijuana should be legalized.II. DiscussionA. What is Marijuana?Marijuana is the name given in the United States to the drug produced from the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. The use of cannabis derivatives downstairs such names as hashish, charas, bhang, and ganja is widespread throughout the world. The most active ingredient of the plant derivative is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The potency of this chemical is indicated by the fact that the average street sample of marijuana contains less than .5% THC. Some samples are c onsiderably higher in THC content thus, effects from the drug vary according to its quality, meaning its THC content. The flowering parts of the plant contain the greatest amounts of THC (Belenko, 2001). These are usually dried and smoked, but they may be made into a drink somewhat like tea or blended into various cooking recipes.B. Why should it be legalized?Marijuana is creation used as legal medical therapy for several conditions. Careful studies have shown that it is effective in treating severe nausea in cancer patient undergoing chem new(prenominal)apy. sure-enough(a) patients seem to respond less well than younger patients and complain more about side-effects, including feeling stoned. Researchers are continuing studies of marijuanas possible emolument in reducing pressure within the eye in glaucoma and in treating muscle spasticity (Earleywine, 2002).Marijuana has been used for thousands of years, both as a medicine and for its uplift effects. In the form of tablets, ma rijuana is frequently prescribed to relieve the nausea and vomiting that often accompany chemotherapy. Its non-medical use, however, is illegal in the United States and most other countries. The penalties for possessing or using marijuana are, in many states, as severe as those imposed for the possession or use of much more steadfast drugs (Goode, 2000). Many argue that marijuana is no more harmful than cigarettes and liquor and should be legalized.III. ConclusionIn conclusion, most people use marijuana for the change states it produces. These states are a little easier to control than those produced by other hallucinogenic drugs, unless the dosage is very high. At low to moderate dosages, hallucinations are not present. Instead, the somebody typically reports of calmness, increased sensory awareness, changes in space and time, and increased appetite, often with a craving for sweets. Many researchers too have concluded that smoking marijuana is no more dangerous, and perhaps even less so, than smoking cigarettes or using alcohol.Reference1. Belenko, S. R. (2001). Drugs and Drug Policy in America A documental History. Greenwood Press. Westport, CT. Pp. 34-67.2. Earleywine, M. (2002). Understanding Marijuana A New Look at the Scientific Evidence. Oxford University Press. New York. Pp. 123-156.3. Goode, E. (2000). Marijuana. Atherton. Chicago. Pp. 567-575.
Saturday, May 25, 2019
In 1978, when Dr. Ernst Thomke became managing director of ETA, the position of this Swiss flagship industry had changed dramatically. in particular with the presence of a strong competency (Japan and U. S). Macro-environment (PESTEL Analysis) * Economic Threat The market share had fallen from 56% to a mere 20%. Opportunity The action had grown from 61 million to 320 million pieces and movements annually.Opportunity the decline of the dollar was not quite as evident. Threat Market share loss was more than pronounced in finished watches (Japan was producing 50. million Electronic watch compared to Switzerland and had 21% of market share on finished watches) Threat The situation was aggravated by adverse exchange rate movements relative to the U. S Dollar. Swiss watches was more expensive.Summary The company had a great problem due to the high technologies of competitors, also their watches was more expensive so their market share had decreased. Industry Environment 5 Forces of M. Porter Threat of entry * New entrants in the market of watches Japan, Hong Kong. * Prices dropped dramatically from 1000/2000 $ in 1970 to merely 20/40 $ by the end of 70s * In the 80s, several competitors switched to the more sophisticated parallel of latitude models and thus created competition for the Swatch. Intensity of rivalry among existing competitors Japan held the technological edge and created the new electronic watch to compete with Swatch.Most of the early American digital watch producers had started to withdraw from the watch business * Ebauches entered into direct international competition with Japanese, French, German and Soviet manufacturers. Bargaining power of Suppliers * Ebauches S. A, of which ETA was part, was the major producer and provider of watch movements for ASUAG, the main company (the Switzerlands largest watch corporation). Bargaining power of Buyers The third world and newly industrialized nations offer a previously undiscovered market for Swatch * The Swiss exported movements and unassembled parts to foreign customers * ETA expanded its movements sales beyond its then current customers (Switzerland, France and Germany) to Japan, Hong Kong and Brazil. Substitute Products * The invention of Electronic Watches by Japan.The new running(a) watch designed by Swatch Key Success Factors * The Delirium project with the objective to create the worlds thinnest analogue quartz movement. * Highly competent labor, requiring flexibility, quality, and first-class styling at low-cost. The company adopted the strategy of differentiation and low-cost (economies of scale). * The Swiss company had their stronghold in assembly. * ETA and its parent company ASUAG have a long history of high quality watch design and manufacture. * As part of Switzerlands largest watch company, ETA had the resources to mount a turnaround effort. * ETA claimed more secure over its distribution channels and increased authority in formulating its strategy.The Swatch is produced in one single operation, which means that the production be are lower. Attractive allocator margins and extensive training of the retailers sales personnel combined with innovative advertising ensure the unique positioning of the product. * The Swatchs innovative design and production engine room led to the creation of a low-cost, highly reliable watch giving ETA a clear competitive advantage. * Strong brand and customer loyalty shift into in the fashion market.A wide range of products with different designs across all price points Mission, Goals, Objectives, Social Responsibility and Ethics Objectives Price Quartz-analogue watch, retailing for no more than 50 Franc Suisse * Sales target 10 million pieces during the first three years. * Manufacturing costs Initially 15 SFr less than those of any competitor. At a cumulative volume of 5 million pieces, learning and scale economies would reduce costs to 10 SFr or less. Continued expansion would yield long-term estimated costs per watch of less than 7 SFr. * Quality High quality, waterproof, shock resistant, no repair possible, battery only replaceable element, all parts standardized, free prime(a) of material, model variations only in dial and hands.
Friday, May 24, 2019
JetBlue Airways Corporation was formed in August 1998 as a low-f be, inexpensive solely amply service passenger air hose serving select United States merchandise. JetBlues operations strategy was designed to achieve a low cost, whilst offering customers a pleasing and differentiated flying experience. JetBlue has had a successful business model and strong financial results during that period, and performed well in comparison to other skyway companies in the US during the period between 2000 and 2003. It had been the only other respiratory tract apart from Southwest airlines, to have been profitable during the af conditionath of the September 11, 2001 attacks on humanness Trade C place, and at a time when the entire airline industry was experiencing losses.The core of JetBlues strategy was low operating(a)(a) cost achieved by dint of a smaller and more productive workforce utilizing aircraft efficiently better use of technology to achieve lower distri plainlyion cost i.e. us e of electronic shred as against paper ticket use of brand new single model planes that subdued maintenance costs and training costs at the equal time. However, moving into the growth phase, JetBlue was contemplating expansion with the introduction of a new model of planes, i.e.Embraer E190, that are smaller than the A320s that they were using. These planes were to be utilized for penetrating mid-size cities and also during off-peak times on existing routes. The friendship defined these markets as destination with 100 to 600 topical anesthetic passengers per day each way, compared to the much larger markets that the company was serving with its A320s. This had potential implications for its low-cost strategy.Jetblues expansion required investments in areas other than just new aircraft. Owen necessitate to try how to raise additive capital to fund thecompanys growth. Investment bankers had presented devil financing proposals a new public paleness offering and a private plac ement of convertible debentures. Own needed to decide which proposal, if any, to recommend to the board.QUESTION 1 realm AIn early 2003, JetBlue continue to see opportunity to grow by adding both new market and new flight to existing destination. One of such new market where the company believed there was attractive opportunity was the mid-sized market segment which comprised of destinations with 100 600 local passengers per day each way. To accommodate this growth, the company is seeking to purchase 65 new Airbus A320, with an selection to buy additional 50 new aircraft, and also connected to purchase 100 Embraer E190 aircraft, with the option to purchase 100 additional ones. Jetblue had embarked on a $6.8 billion plane acquisition program that would increase its aircraft fleet from 45 to 252, including existing aircraft purchase commitment.The company needs thus to think about a way to finance those acquisitions, as well as other needed investments such as spare parts, new engi nes, additional hangars and a flight training centreJOHN OWEN THE CFO OF JETBLUE IS TRYING TO DECIDE WHICH OF TWO financial backing PROPOSALS (NEW PUBLIC EQUITY OFFERING AND A PRIVATE PLACEMENT OF CONVERTIBLE DEBENTURE) TO PURSUE. A straight fair play issue will dilute his principal share pallbearers ownership, exclusively favored a conservative capital bodily construction that would help to ensure JetBlues financial flexibility, access to capital and a favorable lending rate. On the other hand, a convertible debt option seems less dilutive, and cheaper, but brings with it an increased take chancesiness of default and financial problems. instigate BThe financing conclusiveness interpreted by the CFO is important because of the positive impact it is expected to have on the current and future performance of the JetBlue. The considerations as regards impact of the financing decision are discussedIMPACT ON CURRENT PERFORMANCE OF THE COMPANYIt is expected that the new capital wo uld ease Jetblues ability to finance its short term obligations as JetBlue does non have a line of credit, or short-term borrowing facility. Therefore, the company depends on its operating cash flow to finance its short-term obligationsThe new capital will be required to finance working capital requirement of Jetblue, Working capital is the short term resources that are apply to manage the business on a daily basis. This is otherwise referred to as current asset.The financing decision which is aimed at securing the purchase of the new 100-seat Embraer E190 aircraft would allow JetBlue to enter smaller markets while maintaining low operating costs, and increase flight frequency on existing routes. The low fares offered by JetBlue would allow it to attract new passengers who qualification otherwise not fly. requital from this market segment is expected to contribute to the profitability and positive financial performance of the companyIMPACT ON afterlife PERFORMANCE OF THE COMPAN YThe additional capital is expected to strengthen the companys balance sheet at a time when JetBlue will be shouldering a significant amount of debt related to new aircraft deliveries.The decision on financing method would result in a strong capital twist for Jetblue which would ensure that the company would continue to grow while avoiding financial problems.The new cash inflow which is directed at ensuring JetBlue achieves its expansion activities. It is expected that the company will be in a position to purchase larger volumes of jet provide and would thus have more leverage in procuring fuel than today. The company will thus suffer relatively less from fuel shortages and the negative impact a rise in fuel has an operating incomeQUESTION 2PART AJohn Owen the CFO of JetBlue generally favored a conservative capital structure. A conservative funding strategy is when a soaked finances both its seasonal and permanent requirement with long term debt.The criteria which John Owen used to evaluate his decision on the appropriate capital structure and mode of financing to support the expansion drive of the business areFINANCIAL FLEXIBILITY This refers to the squares ability to take advantage of out of the blue(predicate) opportunities or their ability to deal with expected events depending on the firms financial policies and financial structure. A firm with a high debt obligation and light-colored solvency and liquidity is not financially flexible.FAVORABLE LENDING RATE The lending rate to a business varies directly with the risk associated with any apt(p) financial structure which can be accessed by leverage analysis. It is expected that a high leverage (as a result of accepting debt offering) tends to amplify a firms predictable business swings i.e. associated risk. This inclines to increase lending rate to the firm and ultimately result in an unfavorable lending rate.CONTROL The financing aim of a company can imply changes in control constrains on the firm , this can be indicated by percentage distribution of share ownership and structure of debt covenant. There is a high chance that the board of directors will not favor the equity offering as they weresensitive about the dilution (i.e. control dilution) that an equity offering would cause to existing shareholders.INCOME This compares financing tactics on the basis of their effect on value creation and distribution i.e. the impact on Earnings per share (EPS) and Return on equity (ROE). The debt option limited the ability of Jetblue to manage one of the airlines principal risk salary increase fuel prices. As discussed above, the debt offering afforded Jetblue less financial flexibility. If fuel prices rose unexpectedly, operating income will decline thus brooking JetBlues ability to meet the additional debt service payments.PART BOther criteria John Owen could use to evaluate his decision on the appropriate capital structure and mode of financing areTiming This considers whether the current capital market environment is the right time to implement any alternative financial structure and what the implication for future financing will be if the proposed structure is adopted. Financial market condition often favour one or another kind of financing.Others This is the consideration of the impact of the alternative financing choice on other issues and vice versa. An example is the ability to use collateral to reduce the costs and risk of debt financing and the effect of diverse financing tactics on the liquidity of investment.REASONS WHY JOHN OWEN SHOULD PROPOSE THE EQUITY financial support OPTIONFrom the above analysis, it can be deduced that using equity financing option minimizes the companys weighted average cost of capital, thus maximizes the overall stock price of the company and the shareholders wealth.The NPV of the company is higher infra the equity financing optionJetBlue, as any airline company has a debt to equity ratio of 61.21% and incurs very high f ixed costs as a result of high value operating property and equipment. An equity offering would increase the financial flexibility of the company.The company has a very high operating leverage as a result of variability in fuel price. This exposes the company to the risk of cash flow projections errors in case it does not meet the projected revenues figures. Any variation in the estimated revenues, might lead the company to a position where it could not meet its financial obligations related to debt. From this bode of view, JetBlue needs to secure its cash flows. This can be achieved using equity financing.The lending rate to a business varies directly with the risk associated with any given financial structure which can be accessed by leverage analysis. Issuing equity will reduce the leverage of business and reduce lending rate.PART COther financing option I would like to recommend to the board and John Owen areJetBlue can consider some other alternatives as well. Indeed, the comp any can issue some preferred stock. This stock might be considered as equity in accounting, to strengthen the balance sheet of the company, but will at the same time accommodate the board members concern about dilution.Another alternative might be the issuance of simple integrated bonds. The coupon rate for those will however be higher than the 3.5% of the convertible bonds. This option will thus cost more for JetBlue than convertible bondsQUESTION 4PART AAviation fuel cost is the second largest operating cost in the airline industry after payroll, this has significant impact on operating and financing risks of a company.IMPACT ON OPERATING RISKIn 2002, JetBlues fuel cost amounted to $76 million or 14.4% of operating cost. In the event that fuel prices rises, there will be a significant drop in operating income and higher exposure to operating risk (risk created by operating leverage). Operating leverage is the magnification of the top half of the income statement, it measures how EBIT changes in solution to changesin sale, and the relevant cost is the fixed cost of operating the business. It is expected that as operating leverage increase due to jet fuel increase, the operating risk of the business likewise increases.IMPACT ON FINANCING RISKIn the event that jet fuel rises, it is expected that operating profit will drop and operating leverage would increase. This will also hurt JetBlues ability to meet the additional debt service payment i.e. it may face risk of default or potential financial loss which is cognise as financial risk. Financing risk is the risk associated with financing and its created by financial leverage. Financial leverage is the magnification of the bottom half of the income statement, it measures how EPS (earnings per share) changes in response to changes in sale, and the relevant cost is the fixed cost of financing, in particular interest.PART BThe operating and financing risk exposure of JetBlue through rising fuel price of JetBlue h as being managed in the past through hedgerow 75% of its fuel using a combination of CALL OPTIONS, SWAPS AND COLLARS hedging instrument.PART CHEDGINGFuel hedging is a contractual tool some large fuel consuming companies such as airlines (JetBlue) use to reduce their expose to volatile and potentially rising fuel cost. A fuel hedge contract allows a large fuel consuming company to button up in the cost of future fuel purchase, allowing an increasing number of airlines to avoid surprises from unforeseen cost fluctuations. The hedging could be done via a commodity flip or option. One of the basic reasons why a company enters into hedging contract is to mitigate their exposure to future fuel prices that may be higher than current prices and/orto establish a known fuel cost for budgeting and predictability of earnings.PRINCIPAL WAYS JETBLUE HAS BEING USING HEDGING TO MANAGE FUEL set RISKJetblue is a small airline which had less leverage in procuring large volume of jet fuel in order to mitigate risk of volatility or shortage of jet fuel. In order to mitigate fuel pricing risk, Jetblue used a combination of fuel refer option, swaps and collars hedging instrument. From time to time Jetblue has simply bought call options which tend to be at least $5 per barrel.HOW THE HEDGING INSTRUMENT WORKSThe hedging instrument broadly speaking used by JetBlue is the call option.CALL OPTION This is a financial contract between two parties, the buyer and the seller of this type of option. The buyer of the option has the right but not the obligation to buy an agreed quantity of a particular commodity (jet fuel) from the seller of the option at a definite time (the expiration date for European call option or at any time during the life of the option for American call option) for a certain price (the strike price). The seller is obligated to sell the commodity (jet fuel) or financial instrument should the buyer so decide. The buyer pays a tip called a premium for this right. In the case JetBlue, the premium it pays is at least $5 per barrel.SWAPS Swaps are tailor made futures contract whereby an airline exchanges payment at a future date (which can be in jet aviation fuel and could be further into the future into the future than possible through commodity exchanges), based on the fuel or oil price. There could be an ar jogment with a supplier such as Air BP. The airline would buy a swap for a period of say one year at a certain strike price for a qualify amount of jet fuel per month. The average price for that month is then compared with the strike price, and if it exceeds it the counter-party would pay the airline the difference times the amount of fuel. However, if it were lower, then the airline would pay the difference. They lock in a given price, as with forward contacts.COLLARS This is a combination of a call and a put option. The call protects the holder from adverse price increases above its strike price, at a cost of the option premium that woul d be paid in any event. The holder of this call also writes a put option that limits the advantage it can take of price reduction below its strike price. The total cost of taking the two options is the call option premium paid less the put option premium received. A collar limits the speculative risk to a small range of price moves and locks in the price that will be paid for fuel between two known values.
Thursday, May 23, 2019
90 minutes worth of seductive Jessica Alba parading around wearing nonhing more(prenominal) than just knickers and bra, one might think they were in for an enjoyable ride. My dear friend, how very wrong you are As we watch Honey jump on from club dancer to music video choreographer we cant help but snigger at the dreadfully cheesy script, and tedious clichis that partner this film. An example which would fittingly cozy up this point would be the incident where the line Bitch, how you gonna play me like that? is spoken.Now on first hearing this, if you are fortunate enough to have non endured this amateur picture show you may primarily believe it is exclaimed by a young, intimidating, black New York thug. Even with such a description, its likely you will unflurried cringe. However, please prepare yourself for what is written beneath, I have no guarantee that you will survive reading this next section without a frightening, unhealthy combat of laughter erupting from you.The lin e is not spoken by a young man, as opposed to this, he is somebody we would instead consider most decidedly over middle aged, nor is he intimidating either, the big time video director, Michael Ellis,(David Moscow) has middle length curly hair, is that not enough said? And in summing up to this, the culprit is farthermost from black his skin instead is more of a milky colour, enriched with the misfortune of freckles and blemishes. I think a recap is most emphatically necessaryBitch how you gonna play me like that? I can confirm, is spoken by a middle aged, approachable white man Based on this fact alone, I think I have given you more than enough evidence to suggest that five pounds of your hard earned money should not be spent on such garbage Moving swiftly on, with a predictable storyline thats been covered far too many measure already, please do not give yourself credit if you are on of the majority who correctly guesses the ending to this film. After just ten minutes had yo u not already guessed Honey would end up with the too good to be true barber (Mekhi Phifer)?Did you not already know that somehow, some mood Honey Daniels would convert the lives of hundreds of children and did you not instantly figure out that another ten minutes of such dreadful drizzle would have you in a deep sleep, never wanting to awake? Yes, she might have an attractive face, and yes a somewhat mind-boggling figure, but it seems that Billy Woodruff (director) only selected Alba based on these 2 unessential facts. With facial expressions to rival a manikins, and body language consisting of only gyrating and walking, it seems Alba has as good acting skills as one of the spice girls, and in my opinion, far worse dance moves.Now, if youre a naive thirteen year old girl, I can, on some level, understand how you may find this film bearable. However, the way in which the film has been produced means the target audience is extremely narrow, meaning anybody older, with more intellig ence and depth would undoubtedly react in a identical way to me, that being a long undisputable chain of snores. Finally, to conclude I shall finish by saying, if you were contemplating going to see Honey this weekend . . . DONTThe vital involvement to remember here is that you only live once, so not only is it a waste of five pounds but additionally a waste of an hr and a half of your life. To put yourself through such torture will only be a decision you later regret. Take my advice and leave this movie for those teenage girls who simply aspire to be Honey Daniels, and think they understand the cringe worthy language spoken throughout. So remember, if youre flavours hot, Im hoping that means your taste is too, I repeat, do not go and see this film
Wednesday, May 22, 2019
Method biotic Data1. The stream was split into 14 sections and assemblages of 3 were each assigned to work at different sections of the stream, which began at the beginning, right at the top, and ended further down stream.2. The rule we utilise for our experimentation was Disturbance Sampling. This was accompli spue with the aid of a Surber Sampler which we used in one pitch and one pool in our section. The Surber Sampler consisted of a discharge which had a 1.0mm2 web at the end w present all the samples were hoard and a quadrat which was placed oer a part of the riffle or pool and gave us our argona of consume.3. By laying the quadrat matte on the bed, I worried the stream bed and rinse any lying organisms into the mesh. I hence muteed the water supply with the mesh to collect any samples in the water.4. Once this was done the inverteb regulates were identified, counted and pointedPhysical Data1. To accomplish my physical selective information, I mensurable the pH of the water, the Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), the fade away group O, the depth and the temperature.2. All were measured using specialised probes which were placed in the water of the riffles or the pool. The probes gave us readings of whichever get unneurotic of data we were trying to achieve after 30 seconds. The readings were then recorded.3. The amount of dust was estimated using estimation by eye, recorded and measured using a scale of 1-41. None2. Little3. Some4. AbundantThe pool was 4 and the riffles was 2.4. The substrate was withal identified as to what matter was present, i.e. Riffles gravels and pebbles. Pools twigs, soil, leaves, junk.Null Hypothesis in that respect bequeath be no difference in the numbers of genus genus genus Chironomus between pools and riffles.Alternative Hypothesis There will be a signifi fecal mattertly high number of Chironomus in the pools than in the riffles.Which statistical test?I am exit to use the chi substantial test because we do not know the normal distri thation of the data and because I only asseverate up a small data sample of 14. A chi squargon test is used to see if observe values argon different from expected values.X2 = ? (O-E)2 o = observedE E = expectedPOOL flip turn upOBSERVED (o)28515EXPECTED (e)300 = 150300 = 15O E285 150 = 13515 150 = -135(O E) 2(285- 150)2 = 18,225(15-150)2 = 18,225( O-E)2E18225 = 121.515018225 = 121.5150? (O-E)2E121.5 + 121.5 = 243My chi squ ar value from the experiment was 243. The critical value from the table at 95% confidence showed to be 3.84 at 1 degree of freedom.Because my experimental chi- squargon value is of a much greater value than my calculated value, it leaves me with a result indicating that my Null Hypothesis is unseasonable. I am 99.9% confident that it is wrong as the critical value at this point is 10.8 and my calculated critical value is 243 which is an extremely declamatoryr figure.Therefore I will in turn accept my alternative hypothesis whi ch states that thither will be a significantly large(p)r number of Chironomus in pools than in the riffles. After my statistical analysis, I can see that thither was significantly more Chironomus lay step to the fore in the pool. As my density data shows the maximum abundance of Chironomus is 800m2 in the pool, whereas the maximum number of Chironomus found in the riffles is 50m2.InterpretationOur aim was to investigate the distribution of freshwater Macro thornlesss in two microhabitats in an upland stream. A stream is formed due to gravity causing overland flow in water and there atomic number 18 umpteen respective(prenominal) factors which demand the stream and the abundance of its inhabitants. The two different types of factors are Abiotic and Biotic.AbioticThe Abiotic factors, which would affect the stream and its inhabitants, areThe incumbent in the riffles, which is significantly stronger compared to the current in the pools. It would suggest that there are either not as many organisms living in the riffles or that if there are, then they would be oddly adapted organisms. Examples of this would be an organism, which is highly streamlined. This would assistant it be prevented from being washed off the rock. It is likewise adapted to living in the riffles with its claws that help it grip and cling onto the rock to prevent it from being washed away(p).In comparison, there is evidence to indicate that there is none or very little current in the pools. This will affect the organisms living in the pools, because there is very little chance for them to be washed away, resulting in there being a higher population of organisms in the pools than there is in the riffles. The low ratings of current mean that there is also a lot of small substrate particles. This instrument that many other different types of organisms will inhabit the pools as there will be more prey for predators, and in turn, those which are the predators, will attract organisms whi ch ply for them themselves. These new predators will also inhabit the pools to consume their prey.The substratum directs and content of them also affects the stream and its organisms. In the pools, there are mostly high levels of debris as the current is extremely low and so the sediment is allowed to settle on the streambed and be built up. There are, however, lower numbers of detritus, twigs and leaves in the riffles because there is a high current running here and anything which settles here will get washed away. Therefore, there is a layer of gravel and pebbles.Temperature also affects the distribution of organisms. When there are high temperatures or when the temperatures rise, the respiration of the organism will also rise, affecting where they must live due to the fact that if they are respiring at a higher rate, then there will need to be more oxygen available to them. By living in the pools, this large amount of oxygen is unavailable to them because of the slow flow rate and low dissolved oxygen percentage. If there is a drastic change in the temperature of the water, then the enzymes in most organisms will become denatured and they will die. This is also the case if the temperature becomes overly cold. The organisms will not be able to live in those conditions and so will die.The percentage of dissolved oxygen affects the stream and the distribution of its organisms. When there is a low percentage of dissolved oxygen, there will be a high number of organisms, which are specially adapted to living in these kinds of conditions, such(prenominal) as the Chironomus. This organism has haemoglobin in its body to help it survive in such low levels of dissolved oxygen when it is diged in the stream bed. Where there are high levels of oxygen, you will find that there are riffles. This way that there will be very little number of organisms present as they will just be washed away.BioticBiotic factors affecting the distribution and abundance of the stream and its organisms include* Food Availability for example,the prey or food particles of the correct size of it/type* Predation The opportunity of prey surviving plummets when predator densities increase.* Competition Competition from organisms with similar ecological niches* DiseaseThere are 2 microhabitats in the Nant Iago the pool, and the riffle. I am now going to describe in more detail the differences the characteristics of the two microhabitats and compare them to assist me in describing the factors affecting the distribution of organisms in Nant Iago Nr. Abergevanny, S. Wales.Characteristics Of A PoolTo begin, the substrate in the pool generally consists of small particles such as sand, mud, detritus and twigs. Detritus is dead decaying organic matter. This build up is due to the low flow rate of 0.05m/s in the stream which prevents the substrate from being washed away. The effect is that the substrate settles and is deposited on the streambed as there is not enough long suit to wash it away and becomes a habitat for many organisms which can be naturalised in the stream. It has made the detritus rating 3.7 which is abundant.The percentage of dissolved oxygen in the stream is 63.6% which is low. This low amount of dissolved oxygen is due to the fact that bacteria banquet on the large amounts of settled detritus. These decomposing bacteria are high in numbers and aerobically respire extensively as they feed on the detritus. In order to respire, oxygen is needed therefore oxygen levels are exceptionally low and plummet in pools due to the mass of bacteria respiring. This leaves a low ventilation of fresh oxygen in water. The low level of fresh oxygen is also due to the substrate on the streambed accumulating and being so condensed, that the water particles are restricted from moving through it. This, together with the low current, means that the oxygen is not able to be replaced and conditions in pool sediments may become anoxic.Characteristics Of A RiffleIn a riffle the number of small substrate particles recorded was lower than that of the pool, and this is due to the much faster current flowing through this part of the stream. The flow rate here was 0.431 m/s. This means that it has a considerably higher kinetic energy in comparison to the pool and it results in the diminutive particles and detritus being sweep away with ease. This is evidential through the data which I recorded where it demonstrates that the detritus count was 2.4 (little). Organisms which would need to be adapted to these kinds of speeds of water flow. Baetidae is an example. These organisms are extremely streamlined. This assists the organism greatly, as when it hangs onto the rocks, instead of the water taking the Baetidae with its current, the water will instead flow over due to its highly streamlined body.This is also helpful as when the water flows over the organism, the pressure from the flow causes the organism to be pressed against the rock even more, causing greater resistance to the organism being interpreted away with the current. The Baetidae also has adapted claws which are situated on the ends of its legs. These claws cling onto the rock to help snuff it extra strength against being taken away with the current.The dissolved percentage of oxygen was read at 64.1%. This however may not entirely be correct as the reading is far too low than expected, which leads me to believe that the reader may have been defected as the value should be closer to 100%. The general trend is superior to that of the pools because there are large gaps between the large substrate particles in the riffles, which in turn results in higher ventilation and faster current/water flow through the sediment.I will now explain how and why Chironomus are found in pools and are able to live in anoxic conditions.As a female adult Midge deposits her eggs in water, the gelatinous mass hatches and each larvae which has hatched, burrows into the detritus on the bed of the pool. Once here, it develops a silken burrow to prevent the detritus from collapsing on it. The only time the detritivore Chironomus vaguely leaves this silken burrow is when it will pop its head out briefly to feed on the surrounding detritus. This benthic invertebrate is adapted to existing in anoxic conditions and has become acquired to them through several ways psyological adaptations, behavioural adaptations and structural adaptations.* geomorphological Adaptations The Chironomus has diminutive gills at the end of its body which amplifies the large surface area to volume ratio. Therefore oxygen may diffuse in apace and easily. Its slender cylinder shape means that it can burrow easily in the detritus found on the stream bed.* Behavioural Adaptations The Chironomus exists in silken burrows in the sediment. This means that there is a constrained quantity of oxygen obtainable to them. Therefore to make the oxygen accessible, they undulate their bodies to make wa ter flow through the tube. This enables the haemoglobin in their bodies to become saturated with oxygen from the water in this ventilation current.* Psyological Adaptations Just like a mammalian, in order for oxygen to be transported around the body, it must combine with haemoglobin first base. Chironomus has haemoglobin which is very similar to that of a mammal. It consists of 1 or 2 polypeptide custody of 136 to 151 amino acid length. Each polypeptide is folded into a tertiary structure and has a single haem group. This haemoglobin is, however, not found in cells, but is found in the body cavity in a fluid named haemolymph. The only main difference between the Chironomus haemoglobin and mammalian haemoglobin is that Chironomus haemoglobin has a much higher affinity for oxygen. This signifies that the oxygen will bind to the haem groups at extremely low partial pressures and will be released only when needed. This assists them when burrowing in anoxic conditions, in the sediment on the pool bed, where oxygen is very restricted. The haemoglobin act as an oxygen store and will this can be demonstrated on an oxygen dissociation graph.As shown, the O2 dissociation write out for the Chironomus haemoglobin is to the left of the mammalian O2 dissociation bending. This means that it has a higher affinity and will bind oxygen at especially low partial pressures. The reason why the Chironomus dissociation curve is straight is due to the fact that it has only two polypeptides so it is extremely easy for the molecules to bind to the haem groups.The mammalian dissociation curve is s-shaped (sigmoid). This is because it has four polypeptides. With the first haem group, it is tough for the O2 molecule to bind to it, but once it has then this makes it easier for the second and third O2 molecule to bind to the haem groups. The reason why the curve lines off is due to the fact that it is harder for oxygen to bind to the fourth haem group.Benefits of living in anoxic sedim entsLiving in anoxic conditions requires special adaptations which can be found in Chironomus. Examples of why it may be beneficial for the Chironomus to live in anoxic conditions are that it helps them avoid predation from predators such as the stone fly nymphs Perlodidae. It also helps Chironomus avoid competition such as interspecific competition from other organisms, for example, the shrimp (gammaridae) who are also detritivores. The shrimp will feed on the floating detritus but cannot enter the substrates and feed on any buried detritus as it does not have adaptations for anoxic conditions. The Chironomus, however, will feed on the detritus in the pool bed. It means that the shrimp cannot feed on the lower parts of detritus because of the low amounts of dissolved oxygen, they will not survive. This shows the different niches.EvaluationExperimental ErrorsLimitations in apparatusThe limitations in the apparatus equipment may have had an overall affect on my final results. By disc ussing the limitations with my apparatus, I can then relate it to the affect it had on my results.The first limitation was with the Surber Sampler we used. In the pools, there is not as much flow as there is originating in the riffles. This can be distinguished on my results table where it illustrates that the mean flow rate for the pools is 0.059m/s in contrast to 0.431m/s found in the riffles. Hence, this signifies that with a low flow rate in the pools, anything disturbed such as Chironomus or other invertebrates which did not get washed into the net could have swum away with ease. In comparison, the riffles had the advantage of having a high flow rate connotating that there was a high chance of invertebrates being washed into the mesh net. This affects the results because it means that there could have been an artificially lower count of Chironomus in the pools. there wasnt and where there should have been a lower, or perhaps a zero count, of Chironomus in the riffles, there wer e results that showed up to 5 Chironomus being found.The second shyness caused by the Surber Sampler we used was due to the net. The net mesh is 1mm2 and this may have been a problem. Chironomus goes through 8 instar stages where at each stage, they shed their skin and grow bigger. At the first instar stage, the Chironomus is especially minuscule, so when we disturbed the pool or riffle, the small Chironomus will have hardly washed straight through the net. This brings us to a conclusion that we could only have possibly trapped Chironomus or other invertebrates exceeding the size of 1mm due to the fact that they would have been rinsed directly through the net if any smaller. This affects the results because it demonstrates that there may have been a significantly higher amount of Chironomus in twain pools and riffles although they were not recorded as the net was unsuccessful in detaining them, reason being that their size was too diminutive. Nonetheless, this is not a very signi ficant error as it has an equal effect in both the pools and the riffles.A third limitation with the Surber Sampler was related to the substrate. More rocks can be found in the riffles, whereas in the pools, more sand and silt can be found. The rocks in the riffles prevented the Surber Sampler from lying flat as the rocks are, all, various sizes. As the Surber Sampler cannot lie flat, Chironomus may have been washed away, underneath the Surber Sampler where it failed to touch the stream bed. The way this has modify the results is obvious. Any Chironomus which failed to wash into the net swam away when disturbed, leaving the Chironomus results lower than they should have been in the riffles. This is an important error as it only effects the riffles.Limitations in methodThe method we all took up comprised of each group being assigned to a certain part of the stream. The limitation of this is that when groups further up stepped into the stream they would have disturbed the streambed. However, samples which they disturbed were not collected. Instead, the invertebrates which were disturbed could have been washed down stream and rinsed into a net belonging to another group downriver. This is called invertebrate drift and it is caused when a large number of people are sampling all at the same moment. When invertebrate drift takes place, the invertebrates are much more likely to settle in pools as they have a very low flow rate and this causes the Chironomus count to be higher than it should be which is called over sampling. It influences the results because it means that, theoretically, the Chironomus count which some groups collected is more elevated than sibyllic to. This is a major error source as its effect is limited to the downstream groups and mainly the pool regions.This is linked to the accuracy of our results being affected by the limitations in the method.Another aspect contributing to the accuracy of our results being affected by limitations in the met hod, is that there was no standard method of disturbing. Individuals, who disturbed for their group, will have done so in a different manner to another individual disturbing the streambed further upstream, or downstream. This affects the results because it means that some groups will have collected more data through unsettling the streambed more soundly than other groups. Hence, gives the connotation that more invertebrates and Chironomus were found in their sample, which is evident in the pools results where it shows that group 5 collected 80 Chironomus whereas group 11 only collected 3 Chironomus. This is not a major error source as its effect is likely to be equal in both of the pools and riffles.Anomalous ResultsBy analyzing my results, I have seen that there are several inconclusive results which can be commented on. I will discuss and compare the anomalous results which have arisen in both the pools and rifflesPoolsIn my results, by looking at Surber Numbers 5 and 9, you can evidently distinguish that the recorded amount of Chironomus established in the pools is 80 and 70. This is a particularly high amount, even for the pools and it may possibly have been caused by invertebrate drift, as explained above, which would affect the results because it means that the Chironomus was over sampled.This is in contrast to surber samplers 7 and 8, where a recorded number of zero Chironomus can be recognized. The reason for this may be due to the detritus reading being 2 with surber sampler number 7. Chironomus feed and bury themselves underneath this detritus sediment which is possibly why there are no Chironomus found in surber sampler 7. This affects the results here, because it leaves us with a lower recording of Chironomus than we are meant to have.However, this does not explain the findings for surber sampler number 8. The detritus reading here is 4, which may lead us to believe that perhaps the low Chironomus reading is due to predation, being eaten by a fis h of some kind preliminary to our sampling.Perhaps also the Chironomus was in its first instar stage, which would mean that they will not have been trapped by the mesh net. Alternatively, the Chironomus might have just developed into an adult midge, and would no longer be found in the water, but in the air. This would affect the results collected because it would leave us the impression that possibly, if we had sampled the stream on an earlier, or later date, then the Chironomus would be at a trappable larva stage.RifflesSurber samplers 7, 8 and 12 have high numbers of Chironomus readings despite of the fact that they are not usually found in this area. Possible reasons for this might be due to invertebrate drift from further upstream, or it could be due to the small particles of detritus being found in these riffles. The detritus could have been collected in furnish areas such as behind large boulders. After being deposited there and this would have developed a micro habitat, with a mini pool being formed in a riffle, which would explain the high numbers of Chironomus being found.Another anomalous result which was portrayed in both the riffle and pools results was the dissolved oxygen saturation readings. By observing both of the mean dissolved oxygen percentage saturations, we can see that in the pools it is 63.6% and in the riffles it is 64.1%. This is entirely incorrect due to the fact that in pools, there is supposed to be barely any dissolved oxygen saturated in the water, and in the riffles, there is supposed to be in the vicinity of 100% dissolved oxygen saturated in the water. These erroneous results are down to the oxygen meter being broken. It affected our whole experiment because it meant we were not able to carry out the trial accurately and record correct results which would assist us in our evaluation.ReliabilityIn my opinion, the 2 central error sources in my experiment were caused by the Surber Sampler and invertebrate drift.Invertebrate drif t occurs when large numbers of people are sampling the equivalent lake/stream at the same period in time. It is incurred when someone (upstream) walking through the stream disturbs the streambed, but does not collect the samples with their mesh net, or in other cases it is caused when invertebrates sweep under/ through/ or to the side of the net. Hereafter, any invertebrates disturbed will flow along with the current and settle amid pools (mainly downstream) which affects results because it means that invertebrates and Chironomus have been over sampled.To prevent invertebrate drift, instead of all groups sampling the stream at the same time, we could allow the group furthest downstream (group 14) to do their experiment first, and then work our way upstream, only allowing groups to do their trial once the group further down has finished their experiment. E.g., group 14 will do their experiment initially and once complete, group 13 will do their experiment. Then once group 13 has comp leted their experiment, group 12 may carry out their experiment and so forth.This method of carrying out the experiments will completely avoid the matter of invertebrate drift which better the accuracy of results achieved.Another way of shunning invertebrate drift would be to improve apparatus used, which brings me onto the second central error source within the experiment.The Surber Samplers which we used composed only of a quadrat base and a mesh net link to the end of the quadrat (see drawing). This basic surber sampler meant that when we positioned the quadrat onto the (riffles) streambed, it would not have been laid flat because of rocks being various contours and masses. This affects the results because it means that with the surber sampler lying at an awkward angle, when disturbing, invertebrates are highly likely to be swept underneath the mesh net, or the side, instead of into it.A way of recuperating this quandary is by utilizing a better surber sampler. One surber sample r which could be used consists of a bottomless box attached to the bottom of the quadrat.This will improve the experiment and results because not only will it avoid invertebrate drift through the way that nothing will be able to escape (because it will enclose everything within the desired sampling area right down to the streambed), but it will also improve accuracy, plentiful you a set volume of substrate.Another alternative to the surber samplers which we used is a piece of apparatus called the Eckman Grab. These grabs do not have nets attached to the end of them, but instead act as a set of claws.After your sample has been picked up by these grabs, you cleanly drop all of its contents into your tray where after, you can record the results. This will develop the results because one of the core setbacks with surber samplers is that the nets tend to lose samples (through or under), whereas with these grabs they do not have nets and so keeping all the samples within its hold will as sure the results are more accurate and improved.Final ConclusionAs my final conclusion, I will articulate that the trial my group carried out had a quantity of inaccuracies, but not enough for me to completely reject the whole experiment. The results are reasonable as they reflect the way nature works, careless(predicate) of the main sources of error. Also, the statistics and chi squared number shows a highly significant difference in the number of Chironomus in the pools and riffles with more found in the pools. The experimental errors are not large enough to cause a 99.9% rejection of the null hypothesis.To determine the whole pattern of invertebrates and Chironomus along the stream, the experiments should have been carried out every month, instead of just one day. By doing the experiments on just one day we are left with results that are only able to give us a general idea and impression of the patterns of the distribution of invertebrates and Chironomus along the stream.I had t o reject my null hypothesis, as I was 99.9% confident that there was a difference.In my opinion, if I was to repeat this experiment even with the improvements I have suggested, then the results obtained would still be the same.
Tuesday, May 21, 2019
It is a sad reality that vulgarity and obscenity has corrupted our studys as commercialization has become their main motive , this paper discusses these break throughs. Stage dramas are related to our society and culture, they were the part of our society and will remain, however modern changes experience taken place . Dances and vulgar comments hold up no positive impact on our society and they fail to depict our culture. Background Indrasabha In 1855, the enactment of the melt down Indrasabha (the Heavenly Court of Indra) written by Agha Hasan Amanat Ali in the courtyard of the last Nawab of Oudh, Wajid Ali Shah, marked the beginning of Urdu theatre.The drama dealt with the love story between a fairy and a prince. The Nawab, who was a Kathak dancer and had written theses on stage techniques, composed whatever of the songs and choreographed the dances for the play. It was a huge success. Its characters (Sabaz Pari (Green Fairy), Kala Deo (Black Devil) and Lal Deo (Red Devil)) live on as a part of the vocabulary of the South Asia. Post Independence theater Pakistani literature The distinct voice of Pakistani literature came soon after the separate of India in 1947. Since in that respect were many cultural similarities, Urdu and English Literature was inherited by this new state.Over due course, a literature which was somewhat unequivocally Pakistani has emerged in every province. Initially the plays were all about the independence and the atrocities committed on the Muslims by the Hindus and Sikhs but this gradually began to change and the current edit is specifically Pakistani venturing into many different genres. Saadat Hasan Manto Main article Saadat Hasan Manto Manto is arguably the most influential Urdu writer of the 20th century. He was one of the most polemic as well. His work is comparable with D. H. Lawrence.This comparison is made because like Lawrence he also wrote about the topics considered social taboos of his Society. He addressed topi cs ranging from the socio-economic injustice prevailing in pre- and post-colonial South Asia he stirred up quite a fury when he wrote about controversial topics of love, sex, incest, prostitution and the typical hypocrisy of a tralatitious South Asian male. In dealing with these topics, he wasnt careful to conceal any of the facts and clearly showed the true state of affairs. His little stories were often elaborately structured, with vivid satire and a good sense of humor.Manto was a well known film writer of the Indian cinema and was making good money. He however, chose to abandon his lucrative career and migrated to Pakistan. In the seven years that Manto lived in Lahore he continuously struggled for survival. However, he proved to be a productive unmarried who gave some of his best writings to the literary world regardless of his domestic situation. It was in Lahore that he wrote many of his best known works. Manto was primarily known for his short stories of the South Asia, great literature out of the events relating to the Partition of India.The literature, which came out of the period that followed, is considered to have been progressive in its tone and spirit. According to several critics it had not tho evolved its own identity, but also had played a significant role in documenting the hardships and hopes of Pakistan in the latter part of the 20th century. Manto also wrote plays and many of his stories have been successfully adapted for the stage. Some of his characters have become legends in the minds of theatregoers. Farrukh Nigar Aziz The daughter of Abdul Aziz Falakpaima, Farrukh Nigar Aziz was a known literary figure even before the partition.She and her sisters were educated on liberal styles of education. These women received opportunities that were somewhat of a rarity in their day. Formal education for Muslim women and having a career in the arts or perform arts was considered to be unrespectable. Types of theatre The general complaint i n conservative circles is that commercial theatre is lowbrow and thrives on obscene dialogue and dances. The fact is that at least three departments are tasked with monitoring the activities of commercial theatre.From the Punjab Arts Council, which is responsible for vetting the scripts to District Coordination Officers, who are authorized to monitor the screening of plays, to the Home Department that really takes action against producers, directors, artistes and theatre owners, the dice is loaded against entertainment at every step. Local theatre Commercial theatre is surviving this accusation and, in some cases, even thriving this shows that people want entertainment and are prepared to watch plays despite the hazards of doing so. Just like any demand and supply situation, since there is a demand there will be a supply.The arrival of commercial theatre in Lahore was in the early 1980s. The joint efforts of Naheed Khanum, Amanullah, Mastana and Baboo Baral ushered in the art the lively dialogues and innovative style was like a breath of fresh air for the citizens. The initial venue for the staging of these plays was Alhamra but a renewal venue had to be sought once Alhamra closed down for renovations in 1981-1982. Each and every script has to be cleared by the Punjab Arts Council (PAC). Lahore has five dollar bill private (Tamaseel, Mehfil, Naz, Crown and Alfalah) and a government theatre (Alhamra).The moral brigades claims of vulgarity and calls for closure of commercial theatre have become joint in Gujranwala, Faislabad, Multan and Sahiwal. Most of the complaints originate from a small community of zealots while the majority of people enjoy the performances. In Lahore, most of the audience come from another(prenominal) cities. The theatres are packed on Thursdays, Fridays and Saturdays. A stage play usually runs for 16 days and earns around two million rupees in that time. Tickets cost from Rs. two hundred to Rs. 1,000.Training institutions Punjab Lo k Rahs Main article Punjab Lok RahsPunjab Lok Rahs started working as an independent alternative theater group in 1986. The group has seen a number of upheavals both inbred and external during its history. On average, the group has held a performance every fortnight since its creation. It started as a group of young men and women, primarily students, that was concerned with the forces oppression of arts and cultural activities in Pakistan. The group cherished a society that has gender equity and democratic values, respects all humans and offers impact economic opportunities to all.Rahs believes in organized and conscious efforts to realize this dream. Theater is its medium. Rahs experience in the art of theater is very deep as well. From staging classical epics to quick response street skits and from working out foreign adaptations to improvising ones with community and from performing at overseas festivals to villages and urban slums, Rahs has touched upon a host of issues. Rah s study is very wide and diverse as it has dealt with subjects like child marriage and womens right to marry of their free will and staged plays against arms expedite and military dictatorship.Besides experimentation and experience, Rahs has learned theater from its gurus like Badal Sarkar. Its members have received reproduction from many institutions in other countries. The group has imparted theater training to a number of civil society organizations as well. It has supported scores of other organizations by performing for the communities with which they work. Rahs draws inspiration from Punjabs indigenous theater tradition. Its conjure Rahs is the Punjabi word for local form of theater and its logo shows the basic props of this theater.The group aims to marry the tradition with modern techniques and concepts and make it an effective tool in the hands of organizations working for social change. Rahs performs plays only in the mother language of its audience the people of Punj ab. The group believes that the mother language lies at the heart of the issue of cultural identity. The group not only performs but also trains other dramatic societies and community organizations to do theater as an art and use it as an effective tool of communication.The Rafi Peer Theater workshop is named after Rafi Peer one of the pioneers and founders of Modern Urdu and Punjabi Drama in the Ind-Pak Subcontinent. The Theater workshop was founded in 1974 by Salmaan Peerzada and his brothers Usmaan Imraan Sadaan Faizaan and his sisters Kausar and Tasneem Peerzada. The Theater Workshops aim was to bring social and cultural change through the Arts. The theater workshops first Production was Culture Culture. An avant marking theater experiment for its time. It was an effort at creating original contemporary drama in Pakistan.The Play was Performed both in Lahore and Karachi. It was Created and Directd by Salmaan Peerzada, Starring Kursheed Shahid, Perin Cooper,Salman Shahid, Rubina Saigol, Imraan Peerzada and Samina Peerzada. Over chivalric three decades the Rafi Peer theater workshop has produced diverse and amazing body of work in Drama, Puppetry, Dance, Music, besides this it hosts four major Art Festivals. Rafi Peer theater workshop has done enormous service for performing Arts in Pakistan, by supporting Artists and the Arts.
Monday, May 20, 2019
This motion picture is approximately Romeo and Juliet. Leonardo DiCaprio Is playing the Romeo fate in this movie. And Claire Danes is play Juliet part. The movie is directed by Baz Luhrmann. He is a moderne day version director. He directed this movie in 1996 and he only use 10% of Shakespe ar language. Because we dont speak same language as Shakespeare. Baz Luhrmann uses guns instead of snewss and uses gondolas instead of horses. In the beginning of Romeo and Juliet we cypher a news reporter talking astir(predicate) the 2 households. Than the camera bring bug out zooming in and in. indeed real quickly you conform to fair Verona.The narrator says about two households both a standardised in dignity, In fair Verona where we lay our scene. From forth the fatal loins of these two foes, a pair of star-crosss lovers retort their life. When the narrator says those things the background music is very loud and the music is trying to put forward us about the movie. By listening this music you could say that something bad will happen in this movie. Which will be very emotional and sad? Then you fix a newspaper article where it says Montagues v Capulets. And than you chew the fat helicopters, cars and people.When that happens the background music become louder and louder and you see two buildings with the names at the top Capulet and Montague and Jesus deliveryman statue in the middle. The reason why the director put this statue in the middle to show that people in fair Verona want peace in the midst of these two families. We than see the shots of the city and the police. Than we see some of the briny characters in the movie their, with and a description of who they are. The reason why the director shows us this is because he wants to tell us that these people and they will come in the movie latter on.The scene changes and you hear a different music where three Montagues are sitting in the yellow contribute car with the extra plate at the front saying Mon 005 and listening to the music the boys the boys. Than you hear them insulting the Capulets. One of the make fun in Montague is bald, with tattoo of Montague on his head . The music they hear is very cool and they wear sunglasses, and open Hawaiian shirts. The reason why the director put this music to show their personality. In separate word to show how cool they are. The Montagus than go to the Gas station.Benvolio get out from the car and goes to the toilet. He is Romeos cousin . Than we see a Capulet get out of his car, only you can see his feet he chucks his fag down. He is wearable cowboy shoes, and the background music is western music. By hearing that music you could say that person is non a strong person and he is a very important person in the movie and he wants to fight. When he goes in the gas station some girls come out and one of Montague shows arrive at by doing some nasty things. Than one of the Capulet come out of the car.The car is blue and scary and on t he number plate it says Cap 005. The person who comes from the car is very strong and when he removes his jacket you could see his gun saying Cap and the Montagues get scared because on their gun it says Mon and the both of the gangs hate eachother. Abra shows his notes teeth saying SIN and the Montagues fall back in shock into the car. Abra shouts Boo laughing at them. At first Montagues just stay there but after a little period he comes from behind and does bite my thumb Abra doesnt reverse his car very fast.Montague gets scared and panic they jump off to fill up with accelerator. But Abra comes out his car and say do you mind your thumb at me sir one of Montague says I do mind my thumb sir. Montagues look at Benvolio is coming. The reason why they confirm icons on there cars,and guns to show the differences between these two families like to show that they are different from eachother. When Benvolio comes he takes his gun. And thats were the fights pay off. One of the Monta gues hides next to the car where the lady keeps hitting him.And than Tybalt comes out and the western music starts as a background to set the mood. Tybalt is the cousin of Juliet. First Benvolio tries to avoid fights and keep peace between the families. Benvolio says drop your guns and consecrate peace. But Tybalt says I hate the word peace as I hate hell like all Montagues. When he says that the director keeps his camera on his eyeball to shows the evil. He closes the camera on both the eyes of Tybalt and benvolio and on his mouth because he says the line from there. Than the little boy comes from behind and Tybalt takes his gun out and scared that little kid.And than both gangs started to shot at eachother than the Montague who was getting hit by the women he scares her and start guesswork but unfortunately he doesnt know where he is crack because he is keeping shooting at a sign saying Fuel Your antiaircraft he is keeping shooting at this sign. The sign is here to tell you t hat hold your fire. Then Tybalt who is showoff person he wears a black trouser and bullet proof red jacket with Jesus icons on them. He is keep diving and shooting one of his bullet hits Benvolios hand and his gun go straight under the car.Than two of the Montagues put petrol in the car they drop some of it on Benvolio. They both sit in the car and start driving it . Tybalt than bends down takes his jacket off. Takes another gun out and shots at montagues. Than Tybalt drop his cigarette and the fire starts Benvolio gets scared because some of the petrol is on his shirt. Benvolio than picks his gun and runs over cars and shooting at Tybalt. And the fire blasts all the gas station. Here the directors have to be fast because he has to keep zooming the camera. And note any thing happening in the scene.And than you could hear traffic and shooting noise. Then you see helicopters in the air. And Benvlio and Tybalt facial expression at eachother in anger. The director guidance o their eye s because you could see the anger in the eyes between them. In the background you could see people running and the cars are stopped. Than the prince who is sitting in the helicopter says to them that drop your guns. Than you see two cars in one car Capulets are sitting and in the other Montagues . Montagues says that give me my sword but his wife stops him.Than they both sit inside the building where the prince says two civil wars and says you both disturbed our streets and if one more time you disturbed our streets than you will pay the fine. This part is to show that both families hate really hate eachother and the prince is trying to warn both of these. Than the director focus on Montagues after that. All the Montagues go to the rim where Romeo is sitting the background music is a very sad music. Romeo is sitting writing his diary and thinking about his Girlfriend Rosaline.You could tell that by aspect at his face that he doesnt like whats happening between these two families. He likes to spend very much time alone because of the violence. Romeos mother talk to her husband about Romeo. You also could see the link between Benvolio and his shirt. Because on his shirt there are flowers and its all about the beach. And now they are on beach as well you could say that he spends most of his time on the beach. He than gets out of the car and says good morrow to his cousin they both walk and in the TV Romeo sees what Benvolio did he tries to tell him that not to this because that course there wont be any piece.As an audience I would say that this movie is great. There are some really good unbelievable actions fights. The music is a sum and it really suits the movie. And it would make good money. Baz Luhrmann directed this movie superbly. The camera angles were perfect. The other actors are superb, and acted wonderfully in the movie. What Luhrmann did was both bold and brilliant, and he succeeded wonderfully. First people thought that Luhrmann destroyed the play s beauty and power by setting it in modern times. In short words I would say love in first sight.
Sunday, May 19, 2019
What is couch management, and what ar its main objectives? What is the relationship between tasks and events, or milest one and only(a)s? What is a clear breakdown structure? How do you create one? What are task patterns, and how can you recognize them? comparability the advantages and disadvantages of Gantt and PERT/CPM charts. Define the following terms best-case estimate, probable-case estimate, and worst- case estimate, and describe how barf managers make use of these concepts. How does a project manager calculate stick out and finish times? What is a critical path, and why is it important to project managers? How do you identify the critical path?What are some project reporting and communication techniques? What is essay management, and why is it important?In Poor Richards Almanac, Benjamin Franklin penned the familiar lines For the wish of a blare the shoe was lost, for the indispensableness of a shoe the horse was lost, for the want of a horse the rider was lost, f or the want of a rider the battle was lost, for the want of a battle the kingdom was lost and all for the want of a horseshoe nail. Looking at the outcome in hindsight, could project management concepts urinate avoided the sack of the kingdom? condone your answers.At Countywide Construction, you are trying to convince your boss that he should trust modern project management techniques to manage a complex project. Your boss says that he doesnt deal anything fancy, and that he can guess the congeries time by the seat of his pants. To prove your point, you decide to use a very simple example of a commercial con- struction project, with eight tasks. You create a suppositious work breakdown struc- ture, as follows Prepare the foundation (10 days). Then assemble the building (4 days). When the building is assembled, start two tasks at once Finish the interior work (4 days) and set up an appointment for the net building inspection (30 days). When the interior work is done, start t wo more tasks at once embellish (5 days) and driveway paving (2 days).When the landscaping and driveway are done, do the painting (5 days). Finally, when the painting is done and the last-place inspection has occurred, arrange the sale (3 days).Now you ask your boss to estimate the total time and economize his answer on a piece of paper. You look at the paper and see that his guess is wrong.1. What is the flush answer?2. What is the critical path?3. Create a Gantt chart that shows the WBS.4. Create a PERT/CPM chart.-What are the five questions typically used in fact-finding? What additional question can be asked during this military operation? What is a systems requirement, and how are systems requirements classified? What are JAD and RAD, and how do they differ from traditional fact-finding methods? What are their pros and cons?What is total cost of ownership (TCO), and why is it important? Provide examples of closed-ended, open-ended, and range-of-response questions. What are three types of sampling, and why would you use them? What is the Hawthorne power? Why is it significant?What is a functional decomposition diagram (FDD) and why would you use one? Explain how to create an FDD. What are agile methods, and what are some pros and cons of this approach? To what three different audiences might you have to give a presentation? How would the presentation differ for each?A group meeting sometimes is suggested as a useful compromise between interviews and questionnaires. In such a group meeting, one systems analyst meets with and asks questions of a number of users at one time. Discuss the advantages and disad- vantages of such a group meeting.-elm College SituationThe school is considering a new system that will speed up the registration process. As a systems analyst, you are asked to develop a plan for fact-finding.1. List all the possible techniques that you might use.2. reveal an advantage for each technique.3. Suppose the development budget is tight. How might that affect the fact-finding process?4. What are five important questions to use during fact-finding?
Saturday, May 18, 2019
Macbeth and Banquos response to the prediction told to them by the temptresss gave way for two argue opinions on both the validity and manifesting of the divination. Although their opinions through off the unveiling of the fortune telling were opposing throughout, at all times they both rendered the prophecy in contrastive ways, whether they contemplated on its benefit or hindrance towards their gleaming future. e genuinely hail, Macbeth, that shalt be queen mole rat hereafter Great fear was shown on Macbeths face suggesting he was very hesitant toward the idea of him becoming King.However Banquo was much more approbative about the words of the witchs, call into question Macbeth, why do you start and seem to fear things that do sound so fair? Macbeth is restrained in shock which gives time for Banquo to question the witchs about his future. He became quite intrigued by what the witchs had told Macbeth so he could not withhold the opportunity to be acquainted with his ch ildrens faith and discover which grain will grow and which will not. Banquo seemed to be quite optimistic in his willingness to indulge in the witchs prophecies. Stay you imperfect speakers, tell me more This portrays to us that Macbeth has now make fond of the prophecy and is thirsts to know more about his future. As Macbeth continues to cry out for the witchs return after their abrupt disappearing, he cries out Would they had stayed It now becomes homely that Macbeth is engulfed in what the witches have told both him and Banquo. Suddenly Banquo begins to revisit the whole situation and begins to speculate if the consummate ordeal truly occurred. Or have we eaten on the insane root that takes the reason prisoner? he continues to question the possible act asion that they could be hallucinating. This is the beginning of Banquos now hesitance towards indulging in the witchs prophecies, and Macbeths now apparent obsession with the witchs prophecy. Macbeth attempts to persuade Banquo by regurgitating the witchs prophecy and reminding Banquo that his children shall be kings. And what better could Banquo have replied to Macbeth with to continue to hold Macbeth prisoner to the prophecy other than You shall be king.It is now seen that the tides have shifted, and Macbeth is now very much engulfed in the prophecy, as Macbeth discovers that a portion of the prophecy has been fulfilled with the title Thane of Cawdor being placed unto him. As Macbeth continues to be animated about the possibility of the entire prophecy being fulfilled, Banquo becomes hesitant towards the prophecy. It is this speech by Banquo that defines his reasons for being so cautious in his reaction to the prophecy. oftentimes to win us to our harm the instru manpowerts of darkness tell us truths, win us with respectable trifles, to betrays in deepest consequence. This speech portrays Banquos new found reluctance towards the witchs forecast of the future. He now sees what Macbeth is blind to o, the possibility of knowledge becoming more harmful to the men rather than helpful in Macbeths want for more, particularly pertaining to him becoming King. As Macbeth begins to weigh the prophecy against logic and the now present, he accepts the fact that if two truths are told, as happy prologues to the s easying act of the imperial theme. Macbeth is now beginning to assume that if portions of the prophecy are being fulfilled as the witchs had said, it is only a matter of time before he shall become king. As Macbeth continues to be engulfed by what will be his future downfall, he assumes that all of his new found fortune Cannot be ill, cannot be good. Macbeth begins to wonder if the prophecy is so good, then why is it now that he is considering putting to death Duncan in order to receive the throne.And sadly he is willing to do whatever he believes it takes to become, entirely being unaware to the fact that he did not have to intervene in order for him to become Thane of Cawdor as the witchs had prophesised. Come what come may Macbeth says, proposing that he is willing to kill Duncan if necessary. It was gather in that before scrutinizing the prophecy Banquo was much aroused by the witches foretelling of the future, but after close query he became tentative towards him possibly becoming a victim of the new found knowledge.Sadly it is very apparent that Macbeth is now engulfed in his plans to becoming King using any means necessary. What makes it so unfortunate is that he doesnt realize it, Think upon what hath chanced, and at more time, the interim having weighed it, let us speak our free people hearts to each other , he says this not realizing that his mind is already made up on the fact that he will stop at nothing to gain the crown.Banquos hesitance towards the witches is well justified in the fact that witches seldom inform us completely on the future, leaving us to pursue and conclude the fantasy with our devilish wishes. Both Banquo and Macbeth sh are their reasons in an attempt to justify their reaction towards the witchs speech, but it is apparent that Macbeth is engulfed by greed and his wishes to become King.