Wednesday, December 4, 2019
Time management Essay Time management Essay The way a person manages time effects the efficiency of their life. There are many ways that will help in time management. College students for example have many responsibilities. The top priority being school. Students must have time to go to class and show their best of their abilities to finish all work that needed to be done. Some students may have to fit work into their daily schedule. As Rock-Richardson describes, As an undergrad, I put my self through two solid years of full-tuition college by working as a daycare provider K (Rock-Richardson 12). In order to be successful at the tasks the student must eat properly and get enough sleep. The one thing that should be learned is motivation and the famous saying Never give up. If a task must be done and it is felt that there is no time, that is just the misunderstanding of time. The first step in beginning better time management is to write it into an organizer. Use the energy you spend putting off an unpleasant task to get it done and off your mind. Make it the days priority or the first thing you tackle. Divide large tasks into smaller, more manageable ones. Use the reward system and reward yourself as you complete each narrower task. Decide in advance how you will reward yourself when you complete the entire necessary task. As time management skills improve, people tend to experience fewer stressful situations resulting from procrastination and/or overextending (trying to do too many activities). Time management strategies give people a sense of control over their lives. Time management strategies also serve as a useful memory aid, reminding one of obligations that must be met at certain times in the day or week or month. They help to organize certain aspects of ones life as well. Bibliography: .
Thursday, November 28, 2019
Their Eyess Where Whatching God Essay, Research Paper Their Eyess Were Watching God # 8211 ; Finding the Woman in Janie Peoples grow and develop at different rates. The factors that to a great extent act upon a individual # 8217 ; s development seem like heredity and environment. Geneticss can play a cardinal function in what sort of individual one becomes. Environment seems like the factor that most frequently and influentially affects a individual # 8217 ; s development. The people one meets and the experiences one has seem really of import in what makes a individual who he or she is. Janie develops as a adult female with the three matrimonies she has. In each matrimony she learns valuable lessons, has increasingly better relationships, and realizes how a individual is to populate his or her life. In Their Eyess Were Watching God, by Zora Neale Hurston, Janie # 8217 ; s matrimonies to Logan Killicks, Jody Starks, and Tea Cake seem like the most important elements in her development as a adult female. We will write a custom essay sample on Their Eyes Where Whatching God Essay Research or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Throughout the narrative Hurston uses different work forces to portray the continuum that work forces fall into in their society. Janie # 8217 ; s matrimony to Logan Killicks seems like the first phase in her development as a adult female. She hopes that her forced matrimony with Logan would stop her solitariness and desire for love. Right from the beginning, the solitariness in the matrimony shows up when Janie sees that his house feels like a # 8220 ; only topographic point like a stump in the center of the forests where cipher had of all time been # 8221 ; ( Hurston 20 ) . This description of Logan # 8217 ; s house seems symbolic of the relationship they have. Janie finally admits to Nanny that she still does non love Logan and can non happen anything to love about him. # 8220 ; She knew now that matrimony did non do love. Janie # 8217 ; s first dream was dead, so she became a adult female # 8221 ; ( Hurston 24 ) . Janie # 8217 ; s supplication seems like her concluding su pplication for a alteration in her life. She says, # 8220 ; Lawd, you know mah bosom. Ah done de best Ah could make. De remainder is left to you # 8221 ; ( Hurston 23 ) . Janie # 8217 ; s prayer gets answered with her following hubby, Jody Starks. He seems like the adult male who fills the nothingnesss of solitariness and love, and continues her development as a adult female. When they foremost run into, Jody bestows regards on Janie, converting her of her particular qualities. For two hebdomads, before they married, they talked and Janie believed that Jody # 8220 ; spoke for alteration and opportunity # 8221 ; ( Hurston 28 ) . The job Janie found with Jody dealt with him non handling her as an equal. He would non allow her talk in forepart of people, learn her to play draughtss, or take part in other events. Like Janie, Hurston # 8217 ; s voice seems dismissed- as non acrimonious plenty, non picturing the rough side of black southern life. Janie notices the job early in the relationship and confronts Jody about it when she says Ã¢â¬Å"it jusÃ¢â¬â¢ looks lak it keeps us in some manner we ainÃ¢â¬â¢t natural wid one Ã¢â¬Ënother. YouÃ¢â¬â¢se ever off talkinÃ¢â¬â¢ and fixinÃ¢â¬â¢ things, and Ah feels lak AhÃ¢â¬â¢m jusÃ¢â¬â¢ markin clip. Hope it shortly gits overÃ¢â¬ ( Hurston 43 ) . Janie realizes that she can non be unfastened with Jody and that he does non look like the same adult male she ran away with to get married. Jody has many of his ain involvements, and none of them are concerned with Janie. Ã¢â¬Å"She found out that she had a host of ideas she had neer expressed to him Ã¢â¬ ¦ She was salvaging up feelings for some adult male that she had neer seenÃ¢â¬ ( Hurston 68 ) . Jody merely gave material goods to Janie. His deficiency of love and his mistakes make her realize the following adult male she meets seems perfect for her. Her development as a adult female feels complete after life and larning with Vergible Ã¢â¬Å"Tea CakeÃ¢â¬ Woods. Tea Cake seems like the accelerator for the concluding phase of development of Janie as a adult female. From Tea Cake, Janie learns to love and what it feels like to be loved. Through Janie, Hurston gives an illustration of a adult females in society who follows her dreams and takes control of her psyche. Tea Cake non merely makes Janie experience particular with his words, but proves it as good by taking her fishing, runing, to the films, dancing, gardening with her, and other # 8220 ; marks of ownership # 8221 ; ( Hurston 105 ) . For a piece, Janie and Tea Cake worked the Fieldss together. For the first clip in her life, Janie seems to bask life. She says # 8220 ; # 8230 ; we ain # 8217 ; t got nothin # 8217 ; tuh make but make our work and come place and love # 8221 ; ( Hurston 127 ) . Finally Tea Cake dies and Janie goes back to Eatonville. From her matrimony with Tea Cake, Janie experiences love. This seems like something she believes really few people have experienced. J anie # 8217 ; s matrimony with Tea Cake finishes her development as a adult female. Janie clearly progresses in her development as a adult female through the three matrimonies she had. Logan Killicks formed her starting topographic point. From him, she learns that she didn # 8217 ; Ts have love. Joe Starks gives her what she thought seemed like love. It appears merely as a show to win her over, which finally gives manner to his subterranean motivations of edifice himself a name. His decease gives Janie a new opportunity. Tea Cake receives the privilege of being the following to get married Janie. He teaches her what love feels like. Although Janie formed as a adult female when her first dream got broken, she completes her growing as a individual when she learns about love. Zora Neale Hurston died in 1960, but her plants have increased in popularity and seem to exceed the trial of clip with remaining power.
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Online Social Networking Essays - Social Networking Services Online Social Networking Online Social Networking BSHS/352 Technology in Human Services September10, 2012 Professor Valerie Avera, MA Online Social Networking Technology is an ever-changing field. Conversely, many businesses, and human services organizations over the world try to look for different ways to improve and be successful. Therefore, one way toward succeeding is by networking and linking themselves with similar organizations. A website, such as LinkedIn can provide any business or organization to grow and remain successful just by a click of the button. On the other hand developing into an online community helps many businesses owners and organizations stay connected to other agencies and the ability to offer more type of support services within the community. The following summary will explain how human service professionals can use social networking to connect with the community and further business opportunities whereas staying connected with other human service professionals. In addition, the summary will also explain how affiliating with the professional communities online can help offer more support services or quality refe rrals to clients and how attending approved training sessions provided by the online groups can keep human service professionals up-to-date and competitive in their field. The LinkedIn network system is a popular well-known site used by many businesses professionals around the world. This site provides business professionals and other types of organizations the ability to exchange information and other networking types of opportunities. Created by five founders, LinkedIn?s website officially took in 2003. The five founders asked 350 of their closet contacts to join their site and within the first month they had approximately 4,500 members in the network. By, the end of 2003 they had 81,000 members and to this present-day more than 41 million members has joined the networking website (?LinkedIn Company History,? 2011). After creating and reviewing the health care profile sites on LinkedIn the three chosen reputable professional business groups was Lighthouse Emotional Wellness, National Alliance on Mental Illness, and Helping Hand Rehabilitation Center in Countryside IL. Lighthouse Emotional Wellness is a premiere center that offers a traditional combination of clinical services whereas a unique and holistic workshop program. The organization additionally offers integrative therapies sessions to treat the everyday physical, emotional, and mental struggles most individuals endure throughout life. In addition, according to their website blog Lighthouse Emotional Wellness belief is that ?wellness achieved facets of a person?s life, whereas the clients emotions can be a guide throughout his or her process of change, leading to greater happiness and better relationships? (?Lighthouse Emotional Wellness,? n.d.). The National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) is a grassroots educational advocacy organization. Additionally they array of services also provides self-help support to family and consumer with enjoying the quality of life of individuals with severe mental illnesses. Moreover, NAMI also provide the community with access to services advocates, treatment, supports, and research. This organization is also steadfast in its commitment to raising awareness and building a community of hope for those in need. In which, according to the organization web-site blog they offers training and education programs for family members, consumers, and the public that includes peer-to-peer support and counseling within a family-to- family- setting and giving referrals for many public networks ("National Alliance On Mental Illness,? 2012). Helping Hand Rehabilitation Center in Countryside IL, conversely, they do not offer continuing education opportunities or credits for licensed professionals. On the other hand they do offer employment networking for their clients through an agency called Employ Alliance, which specialize in job placement assistance. They match quailed individuals with targeted employers hiring people with disabilities. Helping hands also offers outpatient clinics for mental health (?Helping Hand Rehabilitation Center,? n.d.). Unfortunately, not all three companies offer monthly or yearly public meetings to network with other professionals in the health care. In the past people use to communicate by using the postal service or over the phone. When the public first became aware about online communication it made communicating faster and easier. Sites such as LinkedIn which allows their members to maintain a list of contact details of people with whom, they have some level of relationship, called Connections. Members can also invite anyone to become a part of his or her connection list. However, to stay connected within a professional community using a social
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Humanitarian Operations - Essay Example t has become a policy, the US government continues to draw military personnel from the United States forces to implement various humanitarian operations. Many people regard humanitarian operation as beneficial to the United States forces, but this is partially true. Conducting Humanitarian Operations is not the role of the U.S. military and distracts our forces form their primary mission, which is to defend the U.S. interest. By conducting humanitarian operations, the United States reduces the number of personnel from its primary mission of defending its Interest. In recent years, the US government deployed a significant number of military personnel on humanitarian operation, but this has reduced the number of US forces defending US interest in other places. For instance, the US government sent a considerable number of personnel to provide humanitarian operation in the Libya against KadhafiÃ¢â¬â¢s regime (Christopher, 2011). While the world welcome this move, many of the marine and air force personnel who went to Libya had to leave other duties elsewhere. This can be catastrophic is the personnel are required to report to their stations should an emergency occur. The potential harm of such an event underpin the negative impact of humanitarian operation in enabling the United States defend its interest as necessary instead of taking part in operations that undermine the deployment of its personnel. Humanitarian operation distracts policy makers in U.S government from providing meaningful direction on issues that allow the U.S military to execute their mission appropriately and successfully. During humanitarian operations, the U. S military and its policy makers who take part in these programs that do not have definite objectives, but more demanding due to the complexity in logistics (Carter & White, 2011). Because of this, the U.S military will have less time to address real issues that affect their primary missions such as defending U.S interest. Consequently,
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Select an Industry and Analyse it According to Porter's Five Forces - Essay Example However, before venturing into this tiny automobile industry, it is essential to evaluate the competitive forces. If the forces are intense, it becomes difficult to achieve attractive returns on investment (Porter, 2008). However, the company achieves profits when the forces are benign. The strongest competitive forces determine the profitability of the industry and also guide the firm in developing the strategy. Based on PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Five Forces Model, the picture of competition can be build in three stages Ã¢â¬â identification of the specific competitive pressures with each of the five forces, evaluate the strength of each of the five competitive forces, and determine if the collective effect of the five forces is conducive to making profits within the industry. The five forces that shape strategy have been shown in the diagram below and each of them has been discussed separately: Source: Porter (2008). Threat of new entrants The automobile industry is mature and to survive i n this industry the firm must be able to achieve economies of scale. This requires mass production and heavy investments. Because of low sales consolidation is taking place in the industry. Apart from manufacturing regular innovation is necessary to sustain and this requires heavy investments in research and development as well. The cost of entry into an industry also depends upon the probable reaction from existing competitors (Porter, n.d.). High switching costs also deter a manufacturer from entering an industry. Switching costs in this case may be high because of periodical technology up-gradation to survive in the market. Automobile manufacturing and especially with new technology requires intensive distribution strategy with several distribution channels. This becomes difficult for a new entrant to establish and hence threat from new entrants is low. However, foreign competition, new technology and management skills do pose a threat in the industry. Moreover, the UK government is supportive of innovation in the auto industry which makes the threat from new entrants high. Bargaining power of suppliers The automobile manufacturers now outsource bulk of their auto parts to other manufacturers thereby enabling them to focus on the core products, on innovation and research and development. This is known as the OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer) principle where the industry brand name works with a large number of suppliers (Molnar, 2009).This implies that one automobile manufacturer is dependent on several suppliers at the same time and these suppliers too may be sub-contracting work in turn. Thus there are several layers of suppliers for each automobile manufacturer. Toyota in fact has two or three suppliers for the same parts which reduces their dependency on one single supplier (SD, 2005). This suggests that the bargaining power of suppliers is low in the industry. However, since this is a new concept with innovative technology the dependency on supplier s may be high initially as more manufacturers enter the market. Bargaining power of buyers The automobile industry is totally dependent on the sale of output by the buyers. Thus the bargaining power of buyers is high. Buyers have become demanding of facilities and are also price
Monday, November 18, 2019
The Representation of Youth Through the Media - Essay Example Even though both boys and girls are exploited for visual media advertisements, the number of girls used for this purpose seems to be extremely more than that of the boys. Female body is considered as one of the most beautiful things in this world and the exploitation of female body shapes for business purposes is growing day by day. In most of the films and television series, the story line would be something related to the teenagers. All the people, irrespective of age difference or sex difference, are interested in viewing programs related to the teenage community. In fact teenage is the golden era in the life of a person and therefore even old people like to see television serials and films related to teenage life to go through their beautiful memories. Media business people know this psychology very well and they often make films and TV serials which exaggerate teenage life styles and their life philosophies. Thus, in most of the visual media, teenager representation or youth rep resentation seems to be far from reality. This paper analyses teenage representation in media, especially in the visual media, like television programs and films. Representation of youth in visual media According to Taylor & Lisa Taylor (Author) Ã¢â¬ º Visit Amazon's Lisa Taylor PageWillis (1999), Ã¢â¬Å"Both television programs and films are produced with their contrasting contexts of consumption in mindÃ¢â¬ (Taylor & Lisa Taylor (Author) Ã¢â¬ º Visit Amazon's Lisa Taylor PageWillis, 1999, p.3). It should be noted that both television programs and films are viewed by people of different kinds. However, television programs are mostly viewed by a family as a whole whereas films are viewed individually in most of the cases. For example, people like to see adult movies or films privately rather than publicly. On the other hand television serials are mostly watched in groups. Thus, television program producers usually avoid the intrusion of sex contents as much as possible whereas film makers may not obey such unwritten rules. In short, both television programs and films are made in different contexts. For example, Saved by the Bell is an American television program that telecasted between 1989 and 1993. This TV series followed the exploits of several students along with their principal at fictional Bayside High School. Each season of the series basically represented a year of high school for the students, plus summer vacations, ending with their graduation. The sitcom name is an idiom for being saved, by a school bell ringing, when a student is unprepared to answer a question asked near the end of a classroom period (Mashable, 2012). Even though the major theme of this serial was the stupid things performed by teenagers during their school days, it attracted all people because of the comedies involved in it. It should be noted that all people may experience such stupid things in their teenage life and old people was very much interested in viewing this TV se rial because of their interests in rewinding their old memories in teenage life. Ã¢â¬Å"While for some reason the main characters here are like the most popular people in school you might or might not relate with that but you could at times relate with what's going on in their livesÃ¢â¬ (Saved by the Bell, n.d.). All people like to see the stupidity others. For example, most of the people like to see the slipping and falling of another person even though they may not
Friday, November 15, 2019
The concepts of microfinance and microcredit Chapter 2.0: Literature Review Microfinance is the provision of financial services by certain institutions known as MFIs such as Cooperative Banks, Community Based-Saving Bank, Credit Unions, development bank to the poor, low income earners, self-employed and small businesses. Microfinance has been design to address issues of poverty to help those not having access to formal financial system.. According to MIX in June 2010 there was more than 1800 MFIs in over 100 countries, with 92.4 millions borrowers and 78.5 millions savers in the developing world. The concept of microfinance was created by Professor Muhammad Yunus founder of Grameen bank in Bangladesh. Microfinance includes a range of services such as microcredit, saving, insurance and funds transfer. Traditional banks do not provide facilities to low income earners; they provide services to people after assessing the profile of clients according to certain criteria such as pay, credit history and assets of the clients. According to Hernando De Soto (1989) a Peruvian economist poor people have no assets to provide as collateral to bank when taking a loan, therefore they are not liable to receive loans from banks. Since poor people do not have access to traditional banks they have to lend money with high interest rates from others sources such as pawnbroker and local money lender sometimes with 100% interest rate as borrowing from them is fast and flexible. Over the last 30 years MFIs have developed new methods with less collateral to offer small loans to low income earners and has grown rapidly in Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe and Latin America where there were few bank infrastructures and where in some cases more than 80 % of the population did not have a bank account. Grameen Bank and Banco Solidiario of Bolivia two popular have provided millions of loans to poor people and microentrepreneurs and and these has caused governments and NGOs to direct their resources to microfinance programmes. According to CGAP (2008), MFIs are funded by 33 donors of 21 investors such as DFI. Microfinance offers permanent financial facilities for education, health, personal emergencies, disasters, investment opportunities to the poor and it is used as a development tool. MFIs begin as non-profit organization increasingly they are now evolving as profit entities because MFIs are required to have a banking license for saving services. Some MFIs offers non- financial facilities such as health services and business development. In this review we will analyze and see how microfinance contributes to the economic development of a country and the review will be focused on creation of employment and the empowerment of women by microfinance. 2.1.1 Professor Muhammad Yunus The concept of microfinance was created by Professor Muhammad Yunus founder of Grameen bank in Bangladesh and noble price winner in 2006.He receives 76 other awards in different countries for his work. Yunus was awarded Americas highest civilian honor, the Medal of Freedom by President Barack H Obama for his contribution in poverty alleviation. Professor Yunus obtained a doctorate in Economics from Vanderbilt University found in Nashville, Tennessee in the United States. He stayed in the US for eight years as a student after his study as a professor in economics. In 1972 he came back to Bangladesh During the famine of 1974 in Bangladesh Professor Muhammad Yunus minor loans of USD27 to 42 poor families for them to buy and sell small articles to allow them to earn a living. The objective behind the loan was to reduce poverty in Bangladesh and poverty alleviation becomes his vision. Grameen bank was an idea generated by Professor Yunus the bank started as a project at the University of Chittagong as a pilot test to find different ways of providing credit to the poor in the rural area The Grameen bank offered its services to a village named Jobra near the university; the project was successful and had the support of Bangladesh central bank in 1979. The bank extends its services to Tangail district and to other areas of Bangladesh. In 1983 the Bangladesh Government turns the project into an independent bank and Professor Yunus had a grant from the Ford foundation to incorporate Grameen bank with the support of two bankers namely Mary Houghton and Ron Grzywinkski from Shore bank of Chicago. The Ford foundation was established in 1936 it is an independent nonprofit and nongovernmental organization which help in social change, the organization help to reduce poverty and help in human advancement worldwide by offering subsidies and loans to certain organizations. Microfinance is also being criticized for its high interest rate, loan repayment and women exploitation but we cannot criticized whole system if there are drawbacks, the whole system can be reviewed for improvement at the right time and places since no system is perfect 2.1.2 Grameen bank Grameen bank is a Nobel Prize winner corporation founded on 2 October,1983 and since then has been proliferated in more than 65 countries, its headquarter is situated in Dhaka in Bangladesh and the bank is the largest MFIs in the country. Grameen is known for its solidarity lending system or banking and is also known as banking to the poor. Solidarity lending is the foundation of microcredit. The word Grameen is derived means village in Bangladesh, the bank incorporates the 16 decisions which is recited by bank borrowers and which they shall abide to them. The 16 decisions comprises the four principles of Grameen bank which are Discipline, Courage, Unity, and Hard work, and the other 15 decisions are resumed as to improve their standard of living and there is the element of togetherness to do social activities to improve their way of living. These sixteen decisions have a positive impact on the inhabitants of Bangladesh where more children have joined school. The bank has different s ources of funding; initially huge capital was obtained from donor agency at low rates. During the 1990s the bank has its bulk of capital from the Central bank of Bangladesh and recently from the sales of bonds subsidized by its government. In 1998 The bank make loan to poor people in the form of microcredit as a result of flood in Bangladesh, the repayment rate decreases but recovered afterwards, USD4.7 billions has been loaned in 2005and USD6 billion in 2008. Nowadays the bank has expand more and offers more loans to the poor and in 2006 it has up to 2100 branches in Bangladesh. Due to Grameens success more than 40 countries including the United States in 2008 where 12.6% of the population live below the poverty line have been inspired by the bank to make projects with the same perspective, only Africa which has lag behind. The World Bank has financed the projects. The bank is owned by the poor borrowers of the bank of which the majority are women as the borrowers own 94% of the equity and the remaining 6% is owned by the Government of Bangladesh. The bank has grown to a large extent between 2003-2007 in 2003 the numbers of borrowers have doubled and in October 2007 the number of clients was 7.34 Million of which 97% were women and had a staff of 24703, in 2504 branches over 81574 villages that is the branches have spread in more villages since they were situated in only 43681 villages in 2003 and the repayment rate. Since the banks start ed to operate it has USD6.55 billions as loans USD87 billion has been repaid and the bank claim repayment rate of 98.35% up from the 95% of 1998 but again the Wall Street journal in 2001claim that it doubted the 95% and the accounting standard used by Grameen bank. Grameen started to diversify in the 1980 where it develops into a multi facet group with profit and nonprofit group among which are Grameen fisheries foundation for fisheries project, Grameen Agriculture Foundation for irrigation project, Grameen fund and Grameen Trust.Grameen believe that the concept of giving charity will encourage charity whereas the concept of microcredit will help poor people to exit poverty and the bank invest in children education by providing scholarships and loans for higher education.In 2009 the bank has disbursed total cumulative amount of loans of USD8741.86 and total loans during the year USD 1150.54millions with a total deposits of USD1200.49 millions with number of groups of 1253160 with 79 70616 members. There are organization which has been created all over the world inspired by GB such as Grameen foundation, Grameen Trust, Grameen America, grameen credit agricole among others. 2.1.3 Microfinance in developed countries Poor people who lack access to finance are also found in rich countries such as in Amecica. Grameen started in America in the late 1980s. Southern Bancorp under the tutelage of Grameen give microcredit to entrepreneurs in Arkansas but make 30% losses at the start, afterwards the bank found out that people needed help to develop their working skills. Grameen in the US mostly financed those who already have a job, people selling toys, cleaning houses not those who will start from nothing. The head quarter of Grameen Foundation is situated at Washington D.C in the US; it is a non-profit organization which helps to eradicate poverty. It was inspired by Grameen bank in Bangladesh, but it is an independent organization. Professor Yunus is a member of the board of directors and gave Grameen Foundation its first grant Grameen foundation finance MFIs. Grameen America has been created to provide microcredit to micro entrepreneurs. It was created in January 2008 and it is found in Manhattan and Professor Yunus is the chairman of the board. The organization is trying to become sustainable to help other people in need, according to the organization anyone with a vision can receive financial services irrespective of their background. The objective of the organization is to reduce poverty to create a better future for families. Grameen America helped the poor communities of the US especially immigrants. 2.1.4 Microcredit Theoretical review According to Boudreaux and Cowen (2008) microcredit is a micro magic and makes the life of the poor becomes easier, it is an alternative to traditional lending of banks. Instead of giving charity to the poor, microcredit is a human way of providing finance to poor people as according to the Chinese proverb Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day. Teach a man to fish and you feed him for a lifetime, it is an investment in human capital. Microcredit is an innovation in the world of finance it is at the heart of microfinance, the concept did not exist before the seventies, and it is a small loan rarely exceeding USD200 and usually below USD50 made to the poor or people with low income with little or no collateral. Microcredit clients are those that are considered as near the poverty line, the loans allow micro entrepreneurs to generate an income for a better standard of living. Grameen bank based itself on three Cs namely Character that is the reliability of the people the Capacity to handle funds and the Capital which is the assets of the borrower such as savings. Microcredit is gaining more credibility in the finance industry and many large organizations are developing microfinance programs for future growth although at the start many were pessimistic about the future of microcredit in the financial system. 50% of the population in many developing countries is self employed and these loans of three months to three years with small interest rates and no collateral help poor people to become financially independent and help to reduce poverty. The microcredit programs helps people to achieve high repayment rate even sometimes more than that of traditional banking because of the system of peer support. In the case of the Grameen bank where there are solidarity groups and it is also known as social capital and is composed of 5 members and each member is responsible for each other success and repayment, but are not guarantees or liable if members default. Neverth eless the members make sure that each one is taking its responsibility to make repayment this act as a motivating factor for the members. Sometimes in real life when a member of the group defaults the other four collaborates together and contribute to pay on behalf of the defaulting member. The microcredit system of Grameen bank is based on Trust and there is no conventional contract between the bank and the borrowers, but the borrowers must have a small account with the bank known as group fund which acts as an insurance in case of an emergency. Women account for 97% of the microcredit client of Grameen bank and this help to empower women as they get access to resources and have a say in decision making since they become micro entrepreneurs. Grameen bank has records of 98% repayment rate from women which is in contradiction with Wall street Journal which says that there is one fifth of the total loan of the bank is overdue but Grameen bank claims in turn that the standard of living of the poor has increased that is they are respecting the 16 decisions of the bank and are able to make a repayment of around 4USD per week. Empirical review of microcredit Grameen bank develop several program for the poor of which one of them is the struggling members program in 2003 which is different from the 5 group member borrowing it consists of distributing interest free loans to beggars in Bangladesh where the banking rules do not apply and where the repayment period is arbitrary for USD1.5 about 3.4 US cents and if they borrower default they are already covered under an insurance paid by the bank itself. This type of loan encouraged the beggars to generate an income by the sales of cheap items, there is a record shown in the microfinance summit 2006 that loans taken by beggars are about USD 833,150 and the repayment is USD 496,900 that is 59.64% repayment rate which according to me is quite encouraging since it is more half of the money loaned. Certain developed countries such as in Canada have try to used the Grameen model but the project has failed due to certain factors such as the risk profile of clients, no taste for joint liability that is the no solidarity between the borrowers, high overhead costs therefore the project does not stand without subsidies in Canada which is contrary to the USA where microcredit has been successful. Sometimes microcredit is subjected to problem such as opportunism and asymmetric information. The first Grameen branch has made a loan of $1.5 million in the USA among which was 600 women and the repayment was very high up to 99%. People took the loan to sell items such as flowers, jewelry clothes and Grameen bank remains unshaken while others collapsed during crisis. Despite the global recession, The President Barack Obama announced the creation of $100 million funds to lend as microcredit to the western hemisphere. Microcredit programmes should be well designed according to the characterist ics of a country, other factors such as the background of the country, the stability of the banking sector,the poverty level, the opportunities and the challenges. 2.1.5 Micro Saving Apart from microcredit the need of financial users is increasing, there is demand from 19 million potential savers to have access to micro saving services. They need services that are flexible and adapted to them. Traditionally savings is done by people at home or by normal banks at a high cost which was not encouraging to the poor. Microfinance has brought services such as savings to poor people. Savings help people to feel safer and more stable, and help poor people to manage their money conveniently. Micro saving consists of small deposits, terms and interest rate that is flexible to clients at the same time banks used the money to make loans to poor people. In some cases micro saving is better than taking small loans since taking a loan is a debt and it becomes a responsibility or a burden if the interest rate of the loan is too high, therefore microcredit is more risky than saving. Saving is an asset for people whereas a loan is a liability; clients will prefer to have assets th an liabilities. Saving is a sacrifice for poor people but it is flexible and they earn interest instead of paying interest which is a source of income. Saving is a must and can helped people in times of need of illness, fire, flood and unexpected events 2.1.6 Credit Insurance In 2002 opportunity organization started to give micro insurance services. Its subsidiary MicroEnsure was the first institution offering micro insurance services and provide protection against many risks for the poor. Stakeholders and local insurance worked in collaboration with MicroEnsure to develop and match the needs of the poor. The insurance provided were affordable, they offered agricultural, medical, property and life policy providing a safety net in case of disasters with average premium of USD 1.5 for family with 5members. Medical policies covered even people already suffering from diseases and even those suffering from HIV viruses. Actually MicroEnsure is offering insurance in 5 countries to over 1million poor people and was one of the runner-ups of financial times in June 5 for sustainability award and receives a grant from The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to expand itself in other countries. MicroEnsure operates in 9 countries and serve millions of people with credi t life, funeral, Health, Political violence, property , typhoon and weather index crop 2.1.7 Microcredit Summit The first microcredit summit was held at Washington D.C. on the 24 February 1997, 137 countries were present at the summit with 2900 participants. In the summit they launch a campaign to reach 100 million poorest families that is those people living below the poverty line, with those living with less than USD1.25 a day adjusted to the purchasing power parity (based on 2005 prices) all around the world within nine years especially to empower women as micro entrepreneurs. The objective was nearly achieved in 2005 and in November 2006 the campaign re-launched to 2015 with two new objectives was ensured that 175 millions poorest families especially women are obtaining credit for self employment and for business and financial services. The second objective is to ensure that 100 millions poorest familys worldwide increase to USD1 a day adjusted to the purchasing power parity from 1990 to 2015. The microcredit campaign is the project of the Educational fund from the USA an organization committed to end hunger and poverty around the world. The campaign group together people such as microcredit practitioners, donor agencies, international financial institutions, non -governmental organizations, advocates, and other people involved with microcredit for effective and efficient practices. In August 2008 the World Bank claim that approximately 280 million families live below the poverty line with less than USD1.25 daily. The four core themes of the summit are reaching the poorest, empowering women, building self sufficient and sustainable MFIs, ensuring that microfinance has a positive impact on the lives of the poor The forthcoming Microfinance Summit 2011 will be held in Valladolid, Spain, the summit is believed to improve the microfinance sector and to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. A hundred countries and over 2000 participants are expected in the summit. In the agenda there will be the presentation of new products, job creation with microfinance and best practices among other issues will addressed. 2.1.8 Poverty It has been proved that microfinance is the tool to help poor family moved out of poverty and to contribute to the economy of a country by increasing their income generating capacity. Studies have shown with the microcredit provided by Grameen bank in Bangladesh 48% of the families below the poverty line have exit from poverty. According to some studies with microcredit 5% of the poor could exit the poverty line each year as it is an investment in human capital and improve peoples life. Microcredit is an opportunity for the poor to realize their dreams. Microfinance is a strategic tool to trim down poverty and help the poor to participate in the social and economic life of a country. 2.1.8 Employment Generation Microcredit helps in the generation of employment; therefore it helps in economic development and in a sustainable means of income. With the microcredit poor people are able to earn a living by selling low priced items or to even expand their businesses at the same time they become sustainable and create employment for other people .Microfinance is a mean of creating employment and improving the life of poor people. 2.1.9 Women Empowerment Microfinance more specifically microcredit is an instrument used for the empowerment of women it increase social welfare and enhances gender equity. Microcredit helps women to become economic actors in power that is becoming self reliance and economically independent. We have heard a lot about the role of women in microfinance, 94% of the borrowers of Grameen bank are women and 97% of the borrowers are owners in the equity of the bank, according to Rankin (2002) the reason behind this is because women invest more in the family than men because of their nurturing instincts and are more devoted towards their families. Women play a crucial role in the economic growth of a country by first improving their family life, their communities and countries. In the microfinance summit provisions are made for the poorest families around but especially for women as they form an important part of microfinance. Women are targeted because they are the one in the family to up bring the children and po verty of the women results in illiteracy of their children and other social problems. Mohhamud Yunus (1999) explains that women are more willing to work harder to raise their children and to move their families out of poverty, whereas when a destitute father earns an income his priorities will more around himself than for his family. In 2005 Kofi Anan promote the year as the UN microfinance year for empowerment of women. Studies have shown that women are good income earner and that women have a high repayment rate this is because solidarity group or social capital replaces securities required by traditional banks thus creating better credit worthiness. In Nepal with the Women empowerment program 68 % of the women are able to cater for the needs of the family by sending their children to school, buying and selling properties which normally was the duty of the husband. Access to microcredit has increase from 7.6 million in 1997 to 26.8 million in 2001 among which are 21 million women the access to loans enabled them to make economic decisions , to buy assets and resources and to become more independent. Social capital forms an integral part of empowerment of women and they work collectively for mutual welfare. According to Coleman (1988) social capital is an asset in the form of human relationship by the sharing of knowledge and resources within a group and World Bank (2009) define social work as a model of collective actions that create quality and quantity social interactions. Social capital helps women to feel united build trust, motivates them to work together to achieve in life. Women empowerment leads to self esteem, motivation, self empowerment, higher knowledge, good leadership, higher collective action, better decision making and ultimately better social position. Women empowerment also helps to fight violence against women. Although violence against women occurred in all social class but women living in poverty are more prone to domestic IPV and domest ic violence, but can at the same time increase the risks since in some cases empowering women is challenging the gender norms Benefits cannot be assumed in all contexts since empowerment is complex and depends on situation. There is also the problem of moral hazard since when women have access to the credit for a given purpose and they are using the money for other purposes. We will look at two among many microcredit stories of women the first one is that of Janet Deval from Haiti who was an illiterate women with a hearing problem she had five children, her husband refused to pay the school fees but she knew that education was important for the children. Janet sold goods in Hinche and pay for her children schools on her own. She started to take literacy classes at Fonkoze a microcredit institution in Haiti. Afterwards Janet knew how to write her name and could things that she couldnt do before since she was never sent to school. Later she took a loan from Fonkoze to be able to expand her business at the market to be able to continue to send her children to school, without the microfinance institution Janet would have been unable to read and write and to even expand her business therefore she would have been able to educate her children. The second case is that of Anastacia Abella from the Philippines, she lived as a squatter in Manila, she lived with her four children in a shelter made from scrap, the village have frequent blackout therefore she decided to search for jar in the garbage to make lamps, after decorating the lamps, she sell 150 of them each day and make a small profit. She took a loan at Opportunity international and she was to make 300 lamps a day, the loan allows her to make greater profit and be able to improve her standard of living. Empirical review Social capital is an important component of microcredit it is used as a tool in development programmes. Social A study was carried out by Forbes Marshall Co .Ltd a well known company in Pune, India as an initiative of CSR about the impact of social capital on social empowerment carried using primary data from 217 women all members of SHG by using random sampling from 60 SHG among which 34% came from lower social class and the rest middle lower class with average family members of 5 and the average age of the women was 30 years old. The number of years of association is 1-7 years. Data reveals that most of them entered a group for the first time and that most of them were aware of the SHG by existing members. The SHG met frequently for interactions.15 variables such as Access for awareness building and capacity building which was further divided into Access to education and training, access to loan and girls education were used using Likert scale to know the perceptions of women about the microfinance programs. To see the effectiveness of the microfinance programmes by the indicators more, sensitivity was used as the SHG were divided into 3 categories of less than 1year,1-3 years and more than 3years. The conclusion of the study was that the social capital created help in women empowerment the older the association the higher the social empowerment and the higher the awareness, the unity and decision making process, but the organization must give appropriate support and policies to the social capital such as capacity building programmes to help decision making. Microfinance programmes make use of physical resources and social capital for sustainable development and economic growth. Social capital should not be the only factor that helps in the empowerment of women; there must be a good policy and objectives behind the social group. Other tools such as experiments, interviews and other types of surveys or a combination can be used to assess the impact of social capital in microfinance programmes for the empowerment of women. In the study above 15 indicators have used to assess social capital but there be other indicators that can be assessed such as communication, trust among others. IMAGE studied the impact on womens empowerment on IPV in South Africa by using random cluster and qualitative data. A microfinance program and training were provided on gender norms, sexuality, HIV and domestic violence.9 indicators of which self confidence, financial confidence, and power to make decisions were used to measure women empowerment. Results about changes in the loan groups were collected and the results were that after 2 years womens empowerment reduced sexual violence by more than half. With adjusted risk ratio= 0.45; 95% confidence interval = 0.23, 0.91 It was observed that the 9 indicators improved and the study showed that women empowerment reduce IPV. 2.2.0 Sustainability of Microfinance Sustainability of MFI does refer to the profit making or the institution being able to sustain itself without the donors or funders. Sometimes to become sustainable MFIs lower their cost and increase their interest rate. According to Rahman (1999) the IR of loan from Grameen has been higher than that of traditional bank rate in Bangladesh. The increase in interest rate may sometimes hinder repayment, the increase should not be too high so that microfinance may serve its purpose. According to UNDP (2003) among the 147 MFIs reporting in the microfinance bulletin 62 are sustainable financially. Chapter 3.0 Microfinance in Mauritius Mauritius is a bank-based economy, there are 19 banks serving the country among which 5 are offshore banks, these commercial banks do not provide microfinance services but the banking sector is stable in Mauritius and therefore important since microfinance is the by-product of the banking system. Microfinance has emerged recently in the country and actually there is only DBM established in 1964, a state-owned bank which operates in the microfinance sector and other sectors of the economy. The head office is found in Port-Louis and 5 other branches among which one in Rodrigues. The DBM serves as a catalyst in the socio-development in Mauritius, the supply of microfinance in Mauritius is quite limited in terms of range of services and the number of people served as DBM provides only Microcredit to its clients since December 2006. Microfinance is used as a tool to fight agaisnt poverty, in Mauritius the poverty line is for a household income not exceeding Rs6000 monthly that is those in the vulnerable group. There are 3 types of microcredit loan scheme that are offered to clients the first one is the Booster microcredit loan for women entrepreneur in sectors such as finance, manufacturing sectors, agricultural, agri business, handicraft, Tourism, ICT and the services sector .Women entrepreneurs loaned by DBM must be registered with NWEC, SEHDA,AREU, IVTB or the Tourism Authority. The loan amount is Rs 100,000 with 9% IR with repayment rates of 5 years and moratorium period of up to 1 year. Normally when taking microcredit no collateral are needed but in this case promissory notes are required as security. Women which are eligible are laid off women workers in EPZ and sugar industry, those in existing business, small women entrepreneurs. Microcredit financing scheme offered to vulnerable groups and are microentrepreneurs with a maximum loan of Rs50000 and 5% IR/per annum and repayment period of 4years and 6 months moratorium and as security floating charge. Booster scheme for small entrepreneur for entrepreneurs to finance a category of activities such as kindergartens, e-commerce, ICT among others, with a maximum of Rs1500000 with a repayment period of 5years, moratorium of 1 year and 9% IR p.a and a limited number of clients are served. Microfinance in Mauritius is in an infancy stage since the financial facility offered is only limited to microcredit and only 3 types of loan are provided to clients and many people may not be aware of these services since they are new in the financial sectors.